Advertisements

August 31, 2009

Indian Rupee and History

Introduction


Rupee is the name given to the official currency that is used in several countries including India, Bhutan, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Mauritius, Maldives and Indonesia. The name rupee comes from the Sanskrit language word 'rupyakam' meaning silver coin. Rupee in different regions is denoted with different symbols most commonly Rs, and Rp. One unit of the currency is equivalent to one hundred equal paise.

Among all the countries mentioned above that have rupee as their national currency; the Indian rupee is the most important with respect to value, preference and popularity. India stands among those countries that discovered the need for a currency and the first rupee coins were issued as early as in the 16th century. The currency code and numeric code for Indian rupee according to the ISO 4217 standard are INR and 356 respectively. The currency in India is denoted with the sign Rs.

Overview


India retains the reputation of issuing the some of the earliest coins in the history of mankind. The currency of India i.e. the Indian rupee is also one of the well-established currencies in the world. The importance of the Indian rupee in the world market is characterized by the fact that Bhutan and Nepal peg their currencies to the Indian rupee. Moreover, the Indian rupee is considered a legal tender in Bhutan that has dollorized the currency. Indian rupee does not use the western number system and has a number system of its own. As in the western number system, the large values of money are counted in terms of hundred, thousand, million and billion respectively, in the Indian number system the large values are counted as hundred, thousand, lakh and crore. The Indian number system is also popular among the countries like Pakistan, Nepal, Myanmar, Bhutan and Bangladesh.

Earlier the rupee coins were made up of silver and that is where this name 'rupee' is derived from as the word 'rupyakam' means silver coin in the Sanskrit language. But when the large silver mines were discovered in the United States of America and parts of European continent, the value of silver declined drastically as compared to gold on which all the other strong economies were based. As a result, the value of Indian rupee also declined as compared to other currencies in the world and this incident is called the 'fall of rupee'.

Structure

Indian rupee did not use the decimal system and rather was subdivided into 16 annas till 1957. In 1957, the decimal monetary system was adopted and one unit of rupee was restructured equivalent to 100 equal paise. The currency in the country is issued in the form of banknotes and coinage, the Reserve Bank of India and the Government of India possessing the issuing authority for banknotes and coins respectively. The central bank i.e. the reserve bank of India is entitled to change the banknote series and the Mahatma Gandhi series, which is in circulation currently, was launched in 1996. The notes are issued in 7 denominations i.e. Rs 5, Rs 10, Rs 20, Rs 50, Rs 100, Rs 500, Rs 1000. Two more denominations for banknotes i.e. Rs 1 and Rs 2 are still in circulation but no new notes are being printed as coins for both these denominations are being minted now. Each note depicts the face value of the note in 17 languages. The notes also have some unique features quite often called the security features that help in avoiding the duplicity and illegal circulation of the notes. These features include
  • Mahatma Gandhi watermark
  • Silver security
  • Latent image
  • Micro-lettering
  • Fluorescence
  • Optically variable ink
  • Back to back registration

Coins for the Indian currency are minted in 7 denominations namely 10 paisa, 20 paisa, 25 paisa, 50 paisa, Rs 1, Rs 2 and Rs 5 under the Coinage act 1906. The country has four coin mints one each at Mumbai (Maharashtra), Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh), Kolkata (West Bengal), Noida (Uttar Pradesh). Like in the case of banknotes, the management of circulation of coins is in the hands of the Reserve Bank of India.

History


India is the place where the concept of coinage developed at its earliest in around 6th century BC which later on built the base for other currencies of the world. according to the historians, the Indian currency i.e. rupee was brought into existence by Sher Shah Suri in the 16th century and it was evaluated as equal to 40 copper coins per rupee. The dominance of Mughals over India started diminishing when the British arrived in the country. The paper money was introduced under their reign in the latter part of the 18th century. Bank of Hindostan made the earliest rupee notes issues in the year 1770.

It was followed  by some more issues of the currency notes by private and presidency banks. For 100 odd years, the issue of bank notes by the private and presidency banks continued but with the formation of The Paper Currency Act  in 1861, the issue of notes was monopolized by the Government of India. The government of India (British India) initially appointed the presidency banks as their agents to help it with the circulation of bank notes as it was a tough job to promote the use of common note over a wide stretch of area. The notes had to be made a legal tender due to the problem arising from the redemption of these notes.

In 1867, the presidency banks were dismantled from the positions as the  agents to the Government of India and the responsibility of the management of the currency was given to the mint masters, account generals and the controller of the currency. The first series of notes that was issued by the government of India was the Victoria portrait series. The notes in the series were uni-faced and were issued in 5 denominations. This series was replaced by the underprint series of notes in 1867 which was kept in use for than 50 years. This long duration of time observed many positive changes in the bank note quality and introduction of a few security features as well. The need to issue small denominations note arose with the beginning of the world war I and Rs 1 note was issued for the first time.

In 1923, the underprint series was replaced by the king's portrait series and they were continued to be used till 1935. The reserve bank of India took over the authority to print and circulate banknotes from the government of India. The notes bearing the portrait of George V was replaced by the notes bearing the portrait of George VI in 1938. In 1940, the one rupee note was re-launched due to the emergence of second world war. The notes with the portrait of George VI were in circulation till 1947 and were taken off the money market with the independence of India. The Indian rupee was adopted as a sole currency of the country and the use of all other domestic coinage was put to an end. The country adopted the decimalization standards in the year 1957. The current Mahatma Gandhi's portrait series was introduced in the year 1996.

Factors affecting the exchange rates between two countries


The volatility in the foreign exchange rates depends upon a numerous macro economic factors that have different degrees of importance to different economies of the world. Some special and exceptional factors affecting the rates may also exist in the case of different countries. Following are shown the common factors on which the foreign exchange rate depends

  • Flow of imports and exports between the countries
  • Flow of capital between the countries
  • Relative inflation rates
  • Fluctuation limits on exchange rate imposed by the governments of the countries
  • Merchandise trade balance
  • Rate of inflation in the country
  • Flow of funds between the countries for the payment of stock and bond purchases
  • Relative growth
  • Short term and long term interest rate differentials
  • Cost of borrowings

RRB - Part2 - 2007 - 100Q

1. An emulsion is a colloid of a—
(A) Gas in a liquid
(B) Liquid in a liquid
(C) Liquid in a gas
(D) Gas in a solid

2. Percentage of carbon in steel ranges from—
(A) 0.1 to 1.5
(B) 1.5 to 3.0
(C) 3.0 to 4.0
(D) 4.0 to 6.0

3. Which of the following is not present in German-silver ?
(A) Copper
(B) Nickel
(C) Silver
(D) Zinc

4. According to the latest estimates, the literacy rate (% of population) in India is—
(A) 63%
(B) 65%
(C) 67%
(D) 68%

5. Who won the U.S. Open (Lawn Tennis) in September 2007 ?
(A) Novak Djokovic
(B) Roger Federer
(C) Rafael Nadal
(D) None of the above

6. Who propounded the theory of 'Economic Drain of India' during British imperialism ?
(A) W. C. Bannerji
(B) Dadabhai Naoroji
(C) Gopalkrishna Gokhale
(D) Gandhiji

7. First Indian Commander-in-Chief was—
(A) Gen. K.S. Thimayya
(B) Gen. K. M. Kariappa
(C) S. H. F. J. Manekshaw
(D) None of the above

8. A computer virus is—
(A) A chemical that attacks silicon.
(B) A micro-organism that destroys integrated circuits
(C) Data that the computer fails to handle
(D) A special kind of computer programme

9. India has a coastline of—
(A) 5500 km
(B) 6500 km
(C) 7500 km
(D) 8400 km

10. Jawahar Tunnel, the largest in India is located in the State of—
(A) Jammu & Kashmir
(B) Maharashtra
(C) Karnataka
(D) Himachal Pradesh

11. The most literate union territory in India is—
(A) Delhi
(B) Lakshadweep
(C) Chandigarh
(D) Puducherry

12. Which of the following is the smallest Parliamentary Constituency in terms of area ?
(A) Chandni Chowk (Delhi)
(B) Sadar (Delhi)
(C) Kolkata North West
(D) Mumbai South

13. Who is the author of the book 'Two Lives' ?
(A) Vikram Seth
(B) James Patterson
(C) Ved Mehta
(D) Khushwant Singh

14. Which of the following sets of countries are referred to as 'The Golden Crescent' the largest opium industry in the world ?
(A) Myanmar, Laos and Thailand
(B) Afghanistan, Iran and Iraq
(C) Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iran
(D) Myanmar, Malaysia and Thailand

15. Which is the anti-coagulant substance in blood ?
(A) Fibrinogen
(B) Heparin
(C) Thrombin
(D) Globin

16. Which group of the following countries participated in the 'Malabar 07,' a six days joint naval exercise (September 4-9) involving 25 warships, in the Bay of Bengal ?
(A) India, U. S., Japan, Australia and South Korea
(B) India, U.S., Australia, Singapore and South Korea
(C) India, U.S., Japan, Singapore and Australia
(D) India, U.S., Japan, Singapore and South Korea

17. Who coined the term 'Hindu rate of growth' for Indian economy ?
(A) A. K. Sen
(B) Kirit S. Parikh
(C) Raj Krishna
(D) Montek Singh Ahluwalia

18. Sri ARVIND KEJRIWAL has been selected for the RAMON MAGSAYSAY AWARD for 2006 for his important contribution in the field—
(A) Formation of Pani (water) Panchayats in Rajasthan helping rural people in facing their acute water problem
(B) Effective implementation of the 'National Minimum Employment Guarantee Scheme' in rural areas
(C) 'Right to Information' movement and empowering citizens to fight corruption
(D) Extending education to children of slum dwellers in Delhi

19. The three day VIII World Hindi Conference was held in July, 2007 at—
(A) New Delhi
(B) London
(C) Now York
(D) Kathmandu

20. In which country is the volcano Mount Gamkonora, the highest peak of Halmahera island, which erupted in July, 2007 located ?
(A) Japan
(B) Indonesia
(C) Russia
(D) France

21. Name the Vice-captain of the Indian Cricket Team which toured South Africa in T-20 tournament recently—
(A) Virender Sehwag
(B) Anil Kumble
(C) Irfan Pathan
(D) Yuvraj Singh

22. The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) consists of—
(A) China, Russia, Kazhakistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan
(B) China, Russia, Mongolia, Kazhakistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan
(C) China, Russia, Mongolia, Iran, Kazhakistan and Uzbekistan
(D) China, Russia, Iran, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan

23. Which one of the following companies announced sometime back the launch of India's first personal computer with one terabyte hard drive capacity ?
(A) Infosys Technologies
(B) Wipro
(C) HCL Infosystems
(D) IBM

24. Which of the following companies has become the highest ranked Indian company in the Fortune Global 500 list (at 135th position) in terms of sales ?
(A) Wipro
(B) Reliance
(C) Indian Oil Corporation
(D) ONGC

25. Which one of the following has not been included in the list of new seven wonders ?
(A) Roman Colosseum (Italy)
(B) Machu Picchu (Peru)
(C) Eiffel Tower in Paris (France)
(D) Christ the Redeemer (Brazil)

26. The Chairman of the Indian Censor Board of Film is—
(A) Shri Anupam Kher
(B) Shri Gulzar
(C) Smt. Sharmila Tagore
(D) Shri Sanjeev Kumar

27. The major harmful gas emitted by automobile vehicles which causes air pollution is—
(A) Carbon Monoxide
(B) Methane
(C) Carbon dioxide
(D) Ozone gas

28. Who among the following is not a classical economist ?
(A) David Ricardo
(B) John Stuart Mill
(C) Thomas Malthus
(D) John Maynard Keynes

29. According to the Employment Outlook 2007 reports of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the number of new jobs created in India every year from 2000 to 2005 is—
(A) 5 million
(B) 8 million
(C) 11 million
(D) 13 million

30. 'World Bank' is also known as—
(A) International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
(B) International Bank for Rehabilitation and Development
(C) International Bank for Refinance and Development
(D) International Bank for Research and Development

31. By which Bill does the Government propose collection of revenues for a year ?
(A) Economic Bill
(B) Finance Bill
(C) Supplementary Bill
(D) None of the above

32. Which is the oldest trade union organization in India ?
(A) Indian National Trade Union Congress (INTUC)
(B) Centre of Indian Trade Unions (CITU)
(C) All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC)
(D) Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh (BMS)

33. Prof. Amartya Sen was awarded Nobel Prize for his contribution to the field of—
(A) Food and Famines
(B) Welfare economics
(C) Indian economy
(D) Poverty

34. Which of the following items is a major item of Indian export ?
(A) Computer chips
(B) Potato chips
(C) Textile garments
(D) Car engines

35. Indian agriculture is typically characterised as—
(A) Land surplus, labour scarce economy
(B) Land surplus, labour surplus economy
(C) Land scarce, labour surplus economy
(D) Land scarce, labour scarce economy

36. The process of curing inflation by reducing money supply is called—
(A) Cost-push inflation
(B) Demand-pull inflation
(C) Disinflation
(D) Reflation

37. Which of the following pair of goods are close substitutes ?
(A) Milk and Sugar
(B) Sugar and Tea
(C) Tea and Coffee
(D) Coffee and Biscuits

38. Long-term funds in the capital market can be raised either by borrowing from certain institutions or through—
(A) Issue of note
(B) Taking loan from Government
(C) Issue of securities
(D) Taking loan from foreign institutions

39. As required by the WTO agreement, the Indian Patent Act was amended in 1999. The Act first came into force in the year—
(A) 1965
(B) 1970
(C) 1975
(D) 1980

40. The Indian Parliament is competent to enact law on a State subject if—
(A) Emergency under Article 352 is in operation
(B) All the State Assemblies of the country make such a request
(C) The President sends such a message to Parliament
(D) None of the above

41. The President of India enjoys emergency powers of—
(A) Four types
(B) Two types
(C) Five types
(D) Three types

42. Sarvodaya stands for—
(A) Total revolution
(B) Non-cooperation
(C) Upliftment of all
(D) Non-violence

43. Right to property was removed from the list of Fundamental Rights during the rule of—
(A) Indira Gandhi Government
(B) Morarji Desai Government
(C) Narasimha Rao Government
(D) Vajpayee Government

44. The chapter or Fundamental Duties includes—
(A) Duty to cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our freedom movement
(B) Duty to vote in General Election
(C) Duty to promote the sense of fraternity among the people
(D) Duty to stick to the political party on whose ticket one contested election

45. In which city of South Africa was Gandhi beaten up and thrown off the pavement by the white people ?
(A) Cape Town
(B) Durban
(C) Johannesburg
(D) Pretoria

46. A national political party is one which receives 4% of the total votes polled in—
(A) Two or more States
(B) The capital city
(C) Four or more States
(D) In all the States

47. The basic features of the Indian Constitution which are not amendable under Article 368 are—
(A) Sovereignty, territorial integrity, federal system and judicial review
(B) Sovereignty, territorial integrity and parliamentary system of government
(C) Judicial review and the federal system
(D) Sovereignty, territorial integrity, federal system, judicial review and parliamentary system of government

48. Which part of the Indian Constitution deals with the Directive Principles of State Policy ?
(A) Part I
(B) Part III
(C) Part IV
(D) Part V

49. How many types of writs can be issued by the Supreme Court ?
(A) 2
(B) 3
(C) 5
(D) 6

50. Which of the following countries is not a member of the SAARC ?
(A) Bangladesh
(B) Bhutan
(C) Maldives
(D) Myanmar

51. The Supreme Court of India enjoys—
(A) Original jurisdictions
(B) Advisory jurisdictions
(C) Appellate and advisory jurisdictions
(D) Original, appellate and advisory jurisdictions

52. Who attended the Congress of Oppressed Nationalists at Brussels in 1927, on behalf of the National Congress ?
(A) Jawaharlal Nehru
(B) Mahatma Gandhi
(C) Dr. Ansari
(D) Motilal Nehru

53. Who amongst the following made it possible for the Indians to enter the Indian Civil Service through an open competitive examination ?
(A) William Bentinck
(B) Dalhousie
(C) Mayo
(D) Ripon

54. In which year Lala Lajpat Rai was deported to Mandalay for organising the agrarian movement in Punjab ?
(A) 1905
(B) 1907
(C) 1909
(D) 1911

55. Which Governor General had entertained Ranjit Singh with great honour at Ropar ?
(A) Minto I
(B) William Bentinck
(C) Hastings
(D) Auckland

56. The Khajli Sultans of Delhi were—
(A) Mongols
(B) Afghans
(C) Turks
(D) A Jat tribe

57. The 'Arya Samaj' was founded by—
(A) Swami Dayananda Saraswati
(B) Swami Vivekananda
(C) Keshav Chandra Sen
(D) Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar

58. Maulana Abul Kalam Azad started an Urdu Weekly, The Al-Hilal in 1912, but, on its being banned by the Government, he founded the Al-Balagh in—
(A) 1913
(B) 1914
(C) 1915
(D) 1916

59. High Courts were established in Calcutta, Bombay and Madras in—
(A) 1935
(B) 1919
(C) 1892
(D) 1862

60. Who was the first Woman President of Indian National Congress ?
(A) Sarojini Naidu
(B) Sucheta Kripalani
(C) Rajkumari Amrit Kaur
(D) Annie Besant

61. Arabs were defeated in 738 A. D. by—
(A) Pratiharas
(B) Rashtrakutas
(C) Palas
(D) Chalukyas

62. Which of the following reform movements was the first to be started in the 19th century ?
(A) Prarthana Samaj
(B) Brahmo Samaj
(C) Arya Samaj
(D) Rama Krishna Mission

63. The rulers of Vijayanagar promoted—
(A) Hindi, Marathi and Sanskrit
(B) Malayalam, Tamil and Sanskrit
(C) Tamil, Telugu and Sanskrit
(D) Telugu, Urdu and Sanskrit

64. In India, the irrigation of agricultural land is carried out maximum by—
(A) Canals
(B) Wells
(C) Tubewells
(D) Tanks

65. The four largest planets of the Solar System in decreasing sizes are—
(A) Jupiter, Mercury, Saturn and Uranus
(B) Mercury, Jupiter, Saturn and Neptune
(C) Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune
(D) Jupiter, Mercury, Saturn and Neptune

66. Which of the following produces maximum crude petroleum in India at present ?
(A) Assam
(B) Gujarat
(C) Off-shore Bombay High
(D) Coastal Tamil Nadu

67. India is one of the largest producers of manganese are in the world along with—
(A) China and Russia
(B) Brazil and Russia
(C) Australia and U.S.A.
(D) South Africa and U.S.A.

68. The 'Chipko Movement' is related to—
(A) Wildlife preservation
(B) Forest conservation
(C) Scientific agriculture
(D) Deforestation

69. Which of the following rivers makes an estuary ?
(A) Cauvery
(B) Krishna
(C) Narmada
(D) Ganga

70. Baltora glacier is located in—
(A) Karakoram ranges
(B) Pamir plateau
(C) Shivalik
(D) Alps

71. The largest producer of world's mica is—
(A) U.S.A.
(B) U.K.
(C) Canada
(D) India

72. The International Date Line is the—
(A) 180° Longitude
(B) 88½° East Longitude
(C) Equator
(D) 0° Longitude

73. Which of the following countries has highest percentage of land under cultivation ?
(A) China
(B) U.S.A.
(C) Canada
(D) India

74. Aryabhata was launched from—
(A) Sriharikota
(B) Mahe
(C) Chandipur
(D) Daman

75. How for does the Exclusive Economic Zone of a country extend from her coast ?
(A) 120 km
(B) 220 km
(C) 320 km
(D) 420 km

76. In which of the following groups, animals bear no teeth ?
(A) Peacock, Ostrich, Tortoise
(B) Owl, Loris, Crow
(C) Alligator, Turtle, Tortoise
(D) Turtle, Kiwi, Cow

77. Jaundice is a symptom of disease of—
(A) Kidney
(B) Liver
(C) Pancreas
(D) Thyroid

78. The vaccination against small pox involves the introduction of—
(A) Killed germs
(B) Weakened germs
(C) Live antibodies
(D) Activated germs

79. Deficiency of Vitamin B6 in man causes—
(A) Rickets
(B) Scurvy
(C) Beri-beri
(D) Anaemia

80. Which is the national flower of India ?
(A) Rose
(B) Lotus
(C) Lily
(D) Sunflower

81. First successful heart transplantation was done by—
(A) D. S. Paintal
(B) C. N. Barnard
(C) D. Shetty
(D) P. K. Sen

82. Yellow Fever is transmitted by—
(A) Aedes
(B) Anopheles
(C) House-fly
(D) Culex

83. Which one of the following is a major green house gas ?
(A) Carbon dioxide
(B) Chloro fluorocarbon
(C) Carbon monoxide
(D) Freon

84. In atmosphere the lowermost layer is—
(A) Troposphere
(B) Exosphere
(C) Ionosphere
(D) Strato sphere

85. Washing of peeled vegetables removes the vitamin—
(A) A
(B) C
(C) D
(D) E

86. Pasteurisation is the process in which milk is heated to—
(A) 60° C for 10 minutes
(B) 63° C for 20 minutes
(C) 63° C for 30 minutes
(D) 72° C for 10 minutes

87. Match List-I with List-II and give the correct answer from the code given below :
List-I (Discoverer)
(a) Jenner
(b) Watson
(c) Landsteiner
(d) Flemming
List-II (Discoveries)
1. Blood grouping
2. Penicillin
3. Vaccination
4. Double helix
Codes :
(a) (b) (c) (d)
(A) 3 1 2 4
(B) 3 4 2 1
(C) 3 4 1 2
(D) 3 2 4 1

88. Which of the following is most elastic ?
(A) Rubber
(B) Wet clay
(C) Steel
(D) Plastic

89. The first ever robot spacecraft to probe planet Venus was named—
(A) Galileo
(B) Magellan
(C) Newton
(D) Challenger

90. A man with colour blindness will see red as—
(A) Yellow
(B) Blue
(C) Green
(D) Violet

91. Comets revolve around the—
(A) Earth
(B) Venus
(C) Sun
(D) Jupiter

92. When a person walking in bright Sunlight enters a dark room, he is not able to see clearly for a little while because—
(A) The eye muscles cannot immediately adjust the focal length of the eye lens
(B) The retina retains the bright images for sometime and becomes momentarily insensitive
(C) The iris is, unable to contract the pupil immediately
(D) The iris is unable to dilate the pupil immediately

93. The swing of a spinning cricket ball in air can be explained on the basis of—
(A) Sudden change in wind direction
(B) Buoyancy of air
(C) Turbulance caused by wind
(D) Bernoulli's theorem

94. The freezer in a refrigerator is fitted near the top—
(A) To keep it away from hot compressor which is nearer to the bottom
(B) Because of convenience
(C) It facilitates convection currents
(D) To minimise power consumption

95. The chemical name of 'Common salt' is—
(A) Sodium chloride
(B) Sodium nitrate
(C) Ammonium chloride
(D) Calcium chloride

96. Denatured spirit is ethanol mixed with—
(A) Petrol
(B) Kerosene
(C) Water
(D) Pyridine

97. The metal, which is a constituent of vitamin B12 is—
(A) Iron
(B) Magnesium
(C) Zinc
(D) Cobalt

98. The most abundant inert gas in the atmosphere is—
(A) Helium
(B) Neon
(C) Argon
(D) Krypton

99. Which metal is extracted from sea water ?
(A) Potassium
(B) Magnesium
(C) Aluminium
(D) Beryllium

100. Precentage of lead in lead pencils is—
(A) 0
(B) 31 – 66
(C) 40
(D) 80

Answers with Explanations
1. (B) 2. (A) 3. (C)
4. (B) As per population census 2001 the literacy rate in India is 64•8%.
5. (B) 6. (B) 7. (B) 8. (D) 9. (C)
10. (A) 11. (B) 12. (A) 13. (A) 14. (C)
15. (B) 16. (C) 17. (C) 18. (C) 19. (C)
20. (B) 21. (D) 22. (A) 23. (C) 24. (C)
25. (C) 26. (C) 27. (A) 28. (D) 29. (C)
30. (A) 31. (B)
32. (C) AITUC was established is 1920, which was the first national level trade union organisation in India to organise workers in the country.
33. (B) 34. (C) 35. (C) 36. (C) 37. (C)
38. (C) 39. (B) 40. (A) 41. (D) 42. (C)
43. (B) 44. (A) 45. (B) 46. (C) 47. (D)
48. (C) 49. (C) 50. (D) 51. (D) 52. (A)
53. (B) 54. (B) 55. (B) 56. (C) 57. (A)
58. (C) 59. (D) 60. (D) 61. (A) 62. (B)
63. (C) 64. (A) 65. (C) 66. (A) 67. (A)
68. (B) 69. (D) 70. (A) 71. (D) 72. (A)
73. (D) In India cultivated land is nearly 55% while in USA it is only 44%.
74. First Indian satellite Aryabhata was launched on April 19, 1975 by the Soviet rocket, Cosmodrome (Soviet Union).
75. (C) 76. (A) 77. (B) 78. (C) 79. (D)
80. (B) 81. (B) 82. (A) 83. (A) 84. (A)
85. (B) 86. (C) 87. (C) 88. (C) 89. (B)
90. (C) 91. (C) 92. (B) 93. (D) 94. (C)
95. (A) 96. (C) 97. (D) 98. (C) 99. (B)
100. (A)

RRB - GS - 29Q

1. Who is considered the real founder of the Gupta Empire?
(A) Chandragupta II
(B) Chandragupta I
(C) Samudragupta
(D) Srigupta

2. Shahjahan ascended the Mughal throne in—
(A) 1628 AD
(B) 1626 AD
(C) 1625 AD
(D) 1627 AD

3. Which is correct order?
(A) Babur, Humayun, Jahangir, Akbar, Shahjahan, Aurangzeb
(B) Babur, Humayun, Akbar, Jahangir, Shahjahan, Aurangzeb
(C) Babur, Akbar, Humayun, Shahjahan, Jahangir, Aurangzeb
(D) Babur, Humayun, Shahjahan, Akbar, Jahangir, Aurangzeb

4. Ibn Batutah visited India during the rule of—
(A) Alauddin Khilji
(B) Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq
(C) Sher Shah Suri
(D) Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq

5. Who was the Nawab of Bengal during 'Battle of Plassey'?
(A) Siraj-ud-daola
(B) Mir Jafar
(C) Mir Qasim
(D) None of these

6. FIFA World Cup, 2006 was played in—
(A) Germany
(B) France
(C) Spain
(D) UK

7. Munaf Patel plays which sport?
(A) Badminton
(B) Football
(C) Cricket
(D) Table-Tennis

8. The first Asian lady swimmer to have crossed the English Channel was—
(A) Bula Choudhury
(B) Arati Saha
(C) Nilima Ghosh
(D) None of these

9. Which country has never won the Cricket World Cup?
(A) India
(B) Pakistan
(C) Sri-Lanka
(D) England

10. Which cricket playing countries fight for the 'ASHES'?
(A) Indian and Pakistan
(B) Australia and South Africa
(C) Australia and England
(D) England and West Indies

11. Who was the first Law Minister of independent India?
(A) Jawaharlal Nehru
(B) Vallabhbhai Patel
(C) Maulana Abul Kalam Azad
(D) Dr. B.R.Ambedkar

12. Who was the first speaker of the Lok-Sabha?
(A) B.R.Ambedkar
(B) G.V.Mavlankar
(C) N.Sanjeeva Reddy
(D) Dr. S.P.Mukherjee

13. How many states (except Delhi) are there in India?
(A) 28
(B) 29
(C) 25
(D) 30

14. Which country won the first World Cup Cricket?
(A) Australia
(B) India
(C) England
(D) West Indies

15. Who was the woman President of the United Nations?
(A) Sarojini Naidu
(B) Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit
(C) Golda Mayer
(D) Margaret Thatcher

16. Who was the first man to land on moon?
(A) Neil Armstrong
(B) Edwin
(C) Gagarin
(D) John Collins

17. One inch is equal to how many centimeters?
(A) 2.54
(B) 2.84
(C) 2.94
(D) 3.0

18. Bronze is an alloy of copper and—
(A) Nickel
(B) Tin
(C) Zinc
(D) Aluminium

19. Minus 40 degree centigrade is equal to _____ degree Fahrenheit.
(A) 104
(B) 122
(C) -40
(D) None of these

20. What is the value of XC (Roman Number)?
(A) 100
(B) 40
(C) 110
(D) 90

21. The person of which of the following blood groups can accept the blood of any group?
(A) AB
(B) O
(C) A
(D) B

22. Mountain K2 is known as—
(A) Everest
(B) Nanga Parbat
(C) Godwin
(D) Austen

23. Lucknow is situated on the banks of river—
(A) Yamuna
(B) Tapti
(C) Shipra
(D) Gomti

24. Who won the Golden Ball Award during FIFA World Cup 2006?
(A) Ronaldo
(B) Klose
(C) Ronaldinho
(D) Zidane

25. Who is the Chief Minister of Orissa?
(A) K C Singhdeo
(B) Nandini Satyaji
(C) Navin Patnaik
(D) Rameshwar Thakur

26. Who is the Finance Minister of India?
(A) Manmohan Singh
(B) P Chidambaram
(C) Murasoli Maran
(D) Pranab Mukherjee

27. Where is the headquarters of South-East Central Railway located?
(A) Bilaspur
(B) Jabalpur
(C) Bhopal
(D) Raipur

28. Which of the following places in India receives maximum precipitation?
(A) Itanagar
(B) Mawsynram
(C) Cherrapunjee
(D) Tezpur

29. Who was elected the President of the Cricket Association of Bengal (CAB) in July 2006?
(A) Prasen Mukherjee
(B) Ajit Panja
(C) Jagmohan Dalmiya
(D) Sourav Ganguly

ANSWERS
1. (A) 2. (A) 3. (B) 4. (D) 5. (A) 6. (A) 7. (C) 8. (B) 9. (D) 10. (C)
11. (D) 12. (B) 13. (A) 14. (D) 15. (B) 16. (A) 17. (A) 18. (B) 19. (C) 20. (D)
21. (A) 22. (C) 23. (D) 24. (B) 25. (C) 26. (B) 27. (A) 28. (B) 29. (C)

August 28, 2009

SSC 2008 - 75Q

1. In which State was the first non- Congress Government set up in Independent India?
(a) Punjab (b) Bihar
(c) Maharashtra (d) Kerala.


2. Cheap money means
(a) low rates of interest. (b) low level of saving.
(c) low level of income. (d) low level of standard of living.


3. Under the rules of the IMR, each member is required to declare the par value of its legal tender money in terms of the US dollars and
(a) Silver. (b) Gold.
(c) Pound Sterling. (d) Diamond.
4. The Government takes 'Ways and means advances' from
(a) RBI. (b) IDBI.
(c) SBI. (d) ICICI.
5. Kisan Credit Card Scheme was introduced in
(a) 1991. (b) 1996.
(c) 1998. (d) 2000.
6. Compared to the rich the poor save
(a) a large part of their income. (b) an equal part of their income.
(c) a smaller part of their income.(d) all of their incomes.
7. One of the main factors that led to rapid expansion of Indian exports is
(a) imposition of import duties. (b) liberalization of the economy.
(c) recession in other countries. (d) diversification of exports.
8. When too much money is chasing too few goods, the situation is
(a) Deflation. (b) Inflation.
(c) Recession. (d) Stagflation.
9. With which crop has Green Revolution been associated?
(a) Rice (b) Wheat
(c) Pulses (d) Sugarcane.
10. Who was the first Indian Governor-General of India ?
(a) B.R. Ambedkar (b) C.Rajagopalachari
(c) Dr. Rajendra Prasad (d) Dr. S. Radhakrishnan
11. A candidate, to become a member of the Rajya Sabha, should not be less than
(a) 21 years of age. (b) 25 years of age.
(c) 30 years of age. (d) 32 years of age.
12. Which Constitutional Amendment gave precedence to the Directive Principles of State Policy over Fundamental Rights?
(a) 42nd (b) 44th
(c) 52nd (d) 56th .
13. Nov. 26, 1949 is a significant day in the history of our constitution because
(a) India took a pledge of complete independence on this day.
(b) the Constitution was adopted on this day.
(c) India became a Republic on the day.
(d) the first amendment of the Constitution was passed on this day.
14. Which of the following expressions does not figure in the Preamble to the India Constitutions?
(a) Sovereign Democratic Republic
(b) Socialist (c) Secular
(d) Federal.
15. Which one of the following Presidents of India served for two terms?
(a) S.Radhakrishnan (b) Rajendra Prasad
(c) Zakir Hussain (d) V.V. Giri.
16. The maximum strength of the elected members of the House of the People (Lok Sabha) is
(a) 530. (b) 545.
(c) 540. (d) 550.
17. How many readings does a non-Money Bill have in each House of the Parliament?
(a) Two (b) Three
(c) Four (d) One.
18. Money Bill can be introduced in the State Legislative Assembly with the prior permission of the
(a) Governor of the State.
(b) Chief Minister of the State.
(c) Speaker of Legislative Assembly.
(d) Finance Minister of the State
19. The Prime Minister who was voted out of power by the Parliament was
(a) Indira Gandhi. (b) Morarji Desai.
(c) V.P. Singh. (d) Chandrashekhar.
20. The Union Parliament consists of
(a) the President of India.
(b) the Council of States (Rajya Sabha).
(c) the House of the People (Lok Sabha)
(d) All of these.
21. The Indian National Congress had passed the famous resolution on "Non-Cooperation" in 1920 as its session held at
(a) Lucknow. (b) Delhi.
(c) Bombay. (d) Calcutta.
22. Who is known as the 'Grand Old Man of India'?
(a) Dadabhai Naoroji (b) Gopal Krishan Gokhale
(c) Bal Gangadhar Tilak (d) Surendranath Banerjee.
23. Which of the following can be considered as the most useful and outstanding reforms made by Lord Curzon, especially in respect of the people living in the undivided province of Punjab?
(a) Educational Reforms (b) Police Reforms
(c) Industrial Reforms (d) Agricultural Reforms
24. Who among the following was sent as an Ambassasdor to the royal court of Jahangir by James I, the then King of England?
(a) John Hawkins (b) William Todd
(c) Sir Thomas Roe (d) Sir Walter Raleigh.
25. 'Dyarchy' was introduced in the Government of India Act of
(a) 1909. (b) 1919.
(c) 1935. (d) None of these.
26. The transfer of Government from the 'Company' to the 'Crown' was pronounced by Lord Canning (Nov. 1, 1858) at
(a) Calcutta. (b) Delhi.
(c) Patan. (d) Allahabad.
27. The India National Congress and the Muslim League came closer to each other in 1916 at
(a) Lahore. (b) Amritsar.
(c) Lucknow. (d) Haripura.
28. The first General-Secretary of the Indian National Congress was
(a) Dadabhai Naoroji (b) A.O. Hume
(c) Ferozeshah Mehta (d) Badruddin Tyabji.
29. Raja Rammohun Roy organized a historic agitation against the
(a) caste system. (b) evil custom of sati.
(c) degrading position of women in society
(d) Practice of superfluous religious rituals.
30. "Long years ago we made a tryst with destiny, and now the time comes when we shall redeem our pledge…"
This was stated on the night of Aug. 14, 1947 by
(a) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar. (b) C.Rajagopalachari.
(c) Jawaharlal Nehru. (d) Dr. Rajendra Prasad.
31. The highest grade and best quality coal is
(a) Lignite. (b) Peat.
(c) Bituminous. (d) Anthracite.
32. The "Dark Continent" is
(a) Africa. (b) South America.
(c) Australia. (d) Asia.
33. Which one of the following is the wettest place in India?
(a) Mahabaleshwar (b) Cherrapunji
(c) Udhagamandalam (d) Mawsynram.
34. The approximate length of the coast-line of India is
(a) 5,500 km. (b) 6,000 km.
(c) 6,500 km. (d) 7,000 km.
35. The area with annual rainfall less than 50 cm in a year is
(a) Meghalaya. (b) Leh in Kashmir.
(c) Coromandel (d) Konkan coast.
36. Silent Valley of Kerala
(a) is the only evergreen forest in India.
(b) contains costly timber trees.
(c) is a good picnic spot.
(d) contains rare species of plants and animals.
37. The only sanctuary where Kashmir stag is found is
(a) Kanha. (b) Dachigam.
(c) Gir. (d) Mudumalai.
38. The Visvesvaraya Iron & Steel Ltd. is located at
(a) Bangalore. (b) Bhadravati.
(c) Mangalore. (d) Mysore.
39. Which dam of India is the highest?
(a) Mettur (b) Rihand
(c) Thein (d) Bhakra.
40. Of the gross cropped area in India, the foodgrains occupy
(a) more than 70 per cent. (b) 60 to 70 per cent.
(c) 50 to 60 per cent. (d) less than 50 per cent.
41. Kaziranga National Park is famous for
(a) Rhinoceros. (b) Tiger.
(c) Lion. (d) Crocodile.
42. The colour of human skin is produced by
(a) Haemoglobin. (b) Insulin.
(c) Adrenaline. (d) Melanin.
43. Which one of the following is not transmitted via blood transfusion?
(a) Hepatitis (b) Typhoid
(c) HIV (d) Malaria
44. Which of the following is a fish?
(a) Silverfish (b) Starfish
(c) Dogfish (d) Cuttlefish
45. Which of the following instruments is used to measure humidity?
(a) Kata Thermometer (b) Anemometer
(c) Sling Psychrometer (d) Clinical Thermometer
46. The period of revolution of a geostationary satellite is
(a) 24 hours (b) 30 days.
(c) 365 days. (d) changing, continuously.
47. The type of mirrors used in the headlamp of cars is
(a) parabolic concave (b) plane
(c) spherical convex (d) cylindrical concave
48. Nuclear explosive devices were tested in India at
(a) Sriharikota (b) Bangalore
(c) Pokharan (d) Kanchipuram
49. The gradation and standardization of agricultural products are conducted through
(a) Food Corporation of India.
(b) Directorate of Marketing and Inspection.
(c) Indian Standards Institution.
(d) Central Statistical Organization.
50. The luster of the metals is because of
(a) high density, due to closed packing of atoms.
(b) high polish
(c) reflection of light due to the presence of free electrons.
(d) absorption of light due to the presence of cavities
51. Flat footed camels can walk easily in sandy deserts because
(a) pressure on the sand is decreased by increasing the area of the surface in contact.
(b) pressure on the stand is increased by increasing the area of the surface in contact.
(c) pressure on the sand is decreased by decreasing the area of the surface in contact.
(d) pressure on the sand is increased by decreasing the area of the surface in contact.
52. The reason for a swimming pool to appear less deep than the actual depth is
(a) refraction. (b) light scattering.
(c) reflection. (d) interference.
53. Alternating current is converted into direct current by a
(a) transformer. (b) dynamo
(c) oscillator. (d) rectifier.
54. German silver used for making utensils is an alloy of
(a) copper, silver, nickel. (b) copper, zinc, nickel.
(c) copper, zinc, aluminium (d) copper, nickel, aluminium.
55. Which one of the following is used to dissolve noble metals?
(a) Nitric acid (b) Hydrochloric acid
(c) Sulphuric acid (d) Aqua regia.
56. Gunpowder was invented by
(a) Roger Bacon. (b) Colt.
(c) C.V. Raman. (d) Dr. Gatting.
57. The purity of gold is expressed in carats. The purest form of gold is
(a) 24 carats. (b) 99.6 carats.
(c) 91.6 carats. (d) 22 carats.
58. Petroleum consists of a mixture of
(a) Carbohydrates. (b) Carbonates.
(c) Hydrocarbons. (d) Carbides.
59. For which invention is Otto Hahn famous?
(a) Atom bomb. (b) Television
(c) X-rays (d) Miner's safety lamp

60. Which one of the following is not a plant product?
(a) Caffeine (b) Piperine
(c) Nicotine (d) Saccharin.
61. Which of the statements is correct about India's national income?
(a) Percentage share of agriculture is higher than services
(b) Percentage share of industry is higher than agriculture
(c) Percentage share of services is higher than industry
(d) Percentage share of services is higher than agriculture and industry put together.
62. Who among the following has been appointed as the eleventh President of the World Bank for a five- year term with effect from July 1, 2007?
(a) John Wolfensohn (b) Paul Wolfowiz
(c) Robert Zoellick (d) David Morgan.
63. Who among the following has been awarded the Dadasaheb Phalke Award for 2005?
(a) Aparna Sen (b) Govind Nihalani
(c) M.S. Sathyu (d) Shyam Benegal
64. Permanent Revenue Settlement of Bengal was introduced by
(a) Lord Clive (b) Lord Hastings
(c) Lord Wellesley (d) Lord Cornwallis
65. In which year was the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) founded?
(a) 1967 (b) 1969
(c) 1970 (d) 1974.
66. Which of the following is not correctly matched?
(a) Indonesia – Jakarta (b) Maldives –Male
(c) North Korea- Seoul (d) Zimbabwe- Harare.
67. Which of the following is the largest parliamentary constituency in terms of area?
(a) Barmer (Rajasthan) (b) Arunachal West (Arunachal Pradesh)
(c) Ladakh (Jammu & Kashmir) (d) Uttarakhand East (Uttarakhand)
68. The first Commonwealth Games were held in the year 1930 at
(a) London (the UK). (b) Sydney (Australia)
(c) Hamilton (Canada). (d) Auckland (New Zealand).
69. The Nuclear Non- Proliferation Treaty came into force in
(a) 1967 (b) 1970
(c) 1971 (d) 1974.
70. Which State of India has the largest percentage of poor?
(a) Bihar (b) Chhatrisgarh
(c) Orissa (d) Jharkhand
71. The island of Corsica is associated with
(a) Mussolini (b) Hitler
(c) Napolean Bonaparte. (d) Winston Churchill.
72. The headquarters of Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries is located in
(a) Vienna. (b) Riyadh.
(c) Kuwait City. (d) Abu Dhabi.
73. When are the 19th Commonwealth Games scheduled to be held in Delhi?
(a) December, 2008 (b) November, 2009
(c) October, 2010 (d) February, 2011.
74. Jamini Roy distinguished himself in the field of
(a) Badminton (b) Painting
(c) Theatre (d) Sculpture.
75. What percentage of India population is below the official poverty line?
(a) Below 30 per cent (b) 30 per cent to 35 per cent
(c) Above 35 per cent but below 40 per cent
(d) Between 40 per cent and 45 per cent.


ANSWERS(Corrected)

1. (d) 2. (a) 3. (b) 4. (a) 5. (c) 6. (c) 7. (a) 8. (b) 9. (b) 10. (b)

11. (c) 12. (a) 13. (b) 14. (d) 15. (b) 16. (d) 17. (b) 18. (a) 19. (a) 20. (d)

21. (d) 22. (a) 23. (d) 24. (c) 25. (b) 26. (a) 27. (c) 28. (a) 29. (b) 30. (c)

31. (d) 32. (a) 33. (d) 34. (d) 35. (b) 36. (d) 37. (b) 38. (b) 39. (d) 40. (b)

41. (a) 42. (d) 43. (b) 44. (b) 45. (c) 46. (a) 47. (c) 48. (c) 49. (b) 50. (c)

51. (a) 52. (a) 53. (d) 54. (b) 55. (d) 56. (a) 57. (c) 58. (c) 59. (a) 60. (d)

61. (d) 62. (c) 63. (d) 64. (d) 65. (b) 66. (c) 67. (c) 68. (c) 69. (b) 70. (c)

71. (c) 72. (a) 73. (c) 74. (b) 75. (a)

LARGEST & SMALLEST CONSTITUENCIES AREA WISE

LARGEST CONSTITUENCIES (AREA WISE)

No.

Name of P C

STATE / UT

Area (Sq Mtrs)



LADAKH

JAMMU & KASHMIR

172374108504



BARMER

RAJASTHAN

55074347377



KACHCHH (SC)

GUJARAT

41414347585



ARUNACHAL EAST

ARUNACHAL PRADESH

39703819946



ARUNACHAL WEST

ARUNACHAL PRADESH

39613001158



MANDI

HIMACHAL PRADESH

32016685177



BIKANER (SC)

RAJASTHAN

31400851943



BASTAR (ST)

CHHATTISHGARH

28613698301



JODHPUR

RAJASTHAN

24257745589



MIZORAM (ST)

MIZORAM

20267859342

SMALLEST CONSTITUENCIES ( AREAWISE)

No.

Name of P C

STATE / UT

Area (Sq Mtrs)

1

LAKSHADWEEP

LAKSHADWEEP

30292967

2

MUMBAI SOUTH

MAHARASHTRA

39387943

3

KOLKATA UTTAR

WEST BENGAL

44312447

4

MUMBAI NORTH CENTRAL

MAHARASHTRA

45418289

5

MUMBAI SOUTH CENTRAL

MAHARASHTRA

49054389

6

CHENNAI CENTRAL

TAMIL NADU

62584855

7

HYDERABAD

ANDHRA PRADESH

66040709

8

MUMBAI NORTH EAST

MAHARASHTRA

68555700

9

MUMBAI NORTH WEST

MAHARASHTRA

72721974

10

CHANDNI CHOWK

DELHI

77504890

Followers