Quiz's for General Studies(GK) for Civil Service Exams 17 12

July 31, 2014

Asia Continent - Bits for World Geography(TM)

Asia Continent - mcqs in Telugu medium for APPSC Exams

July 29, 2014

Exercise 11: Pie Charts- Data Interpretation Solved Questions for Bank PO, UPSC, SSC CGL & MBA Exams

"Following pie-charts give the percentage of students enrolled in different activities and the percentage of girl students enrolled in those activities in a school of 2400 students. The number of girl students is 1250."

1 Q) "What is the approximate percentage of boys in the school? 1) 63 2) 48 3) 37 4) 15 5) 76"

Exercise 10: Line Graphs Data Interpretation Solved Questions for Bank PO, UPSC, SSC CGL & MBA Exams

Following graph gives the total sale of English and Telugu newspapers in six different localities of a city.

1 Q) "In how many of the following areas is the sale of Telugu Newspapers above the average? 1) 4 2) 2 3) 3 4) 5 5) None of these"

Exercise 9: Grouped Bar Graphs- Data Interpretation Solved Questions for Bank PO, UPSC, SSC CGL & MBA Exams

Study the graph carefully to answer the questions that follow. The following sub- divided bar diagram gives the number of students from 5 colleges having a separate liking for different drinks.

1 Q) "What is the ratio of the number of students of college S, who prefer tea and soft drink to the number of students of college T who prefer coffee and Soft drink? 1) 2 : 1 2) 2 : 5 3) 2 : 3 4) 5 : 4 5) 4 : 5"

July 28, 2014

Mesopotamian Civilization

The history of the human race covers the entire period since man first appeared on earth. By about 4000 BC the accumulated knowledge and skills of the preceding thousands of years, combined with new discoveries of metals enabled man to live in urban societies. The emergence of this stage was a revolution in human history known as the metal age revolution. It led to the emergence of the first civilizations which are known as River Valley Civilizations. Such river valley civilizations were noted for the effective use of metal implements for Cultivation, weapons and domestic use.
The Bronze Age civilizations which flourished in different parts of the world between 5000 BC and 500 BC were
1.            The Indus Valley civilization or the Harappan culture (3250 to 2750 BC)
2.            The Tigris - Euphrates civilization of Mesopotamia, the modern Iraq (3500 BC to 1000 BC)
3.            The Nile Valley Civilization in Egypt (4000-500BC)
4.            The Hwang -Ho or the Yellow River civilization in China (3500-3000 BC)

Mesopotamian Civilization
The great Mesopotamian civilization comprises the Sumerian, Babylonian and Assyrian cultures. This civilization flourished in a region between two rivers, i.e, Euphrates and Tigris, hence the name Mesopotamia (meso - in between , potam - rivers; i.e, the land between two rivers). Both the rivers, the Euphrates 2760 kms long and the Tigris 2000 km long, have their source in the mountains of Armenia. The valley between these two rivers is in the shape of crescent and the region is fertile, hence is known as the ‘fertile crescent’. The Garden of Eden mentioned in the Old Testament of the Bible was believed to have been situated within this region. The fertility of the soil and availability of water attracted many tribes to this region. The peculiar feature of the Mesopotamian civilization was its complex character.

Political Life

Zoroastrianism - Intellectual Awakening in 6th Century B.C.

The sixth century B.C. witnessed a great intellectual awakening in various regions of the world . The reformers of all over the world raised their voice against the existing social beliefs and systems and endeavoured to reconstruct them on a rational basis. In Persia, Zoroaster launched his protest against the prevailing religious superstitions and in China, people welcomed the philosophic teachings of Confucius which gave them a higher conception of duties in life. It was an age when people in India were disgusted with old philosophical, religious and social dogmas and were striving for holistic alternatives. The new philosophy of revolt was anti - establishment in form and anti-caste in spirit. The ultimate aim of the revolt was not only spiritual but also materialistic. In due course some of the socio­intellectual movements assumed a religious form. (Example: Jainism, Zoroastrianism, Buddhism.)
The thinkers of the new movements were intellectual philosophers and concerned with life as a philosophy of power and knowledge. In India such thinkers were the wandering teachers (Sramanas). They rejected the authority of the Vedas and Vedic priests, denounced the bloody sacrifices which constituted a very large part of the Religious rituals and they did not make their philosophy and doctrines, god-centric ones.

Zoroastrianism
Before the advent of Zoroaster, the Persians followed a socio - religious faith that resembled the beliefs and practices of Early Vedic Aryans. At that time they practiced polytheism and worshipped several deities representing natural forces, like Mitra, Varuna, Surya etc; they indulged in costly, bloody and senseless rituals, leading to exploitation of people by priestly class. Polytheistic faith and superstitions obstructed social unity, rational thought and moral life. Greed and selfishness ruined Persian Society.

Greek and Roman Civilization Greek Civilization

The history of the human race covers the entire period since man first appeared on earth. By about 4000 BC the accumulated knowledge and skills of the preceding thousands of years, combined with new discoveries of metals enabled man to live in urban societies. The emergence of this stage was a revolution in human history known as the metal age revolution. It led to the emergence of the first civilizations which are known as River Valley Civilizations. Such river valley civilizations were noted for the effective use of metal implements for Cultivation, weapons and domestic use.
The Bronze Age civilizations which flourished in different parts of the world between 5000 BC and 500 BC were
1.            The Indus Valley civilization or the Harappan culture (3250 to 2750 BC)
2.            The Tigris - Euphrates civilization of Mesopotamia, the modern Iraq (3500 BC to 1000 BC)
3.            The Nile Valley Civilization in Egypt (4000-500BC)
4.            The Hwang -Ho or the Yellow River civilization in China (3500-3000 BC)

Civilization of Europe:

Greek and Roman Civilization Greek Civilization
Greece is situated in the Balkan Peninsula on the south eastern part of Europe, Balkan Peninsula is separated from Asia Minor by Aegean Sea. The early Greeks came and settled in Greece in different groups as Achaeans, lonians and Dorians. They came from the Danube River Valley. Greece is a peninsula washed by the Adriatic, the Mediterranean and the Aegean seas. The main land of Greece is full of rugged mountains. Its crisscross ranges cut up the main land into hundreds of valleys.
One of the significant features of Greek civilization has been their city states. Athens, Sparta, Corinth, Thebes etc. were the important city states in ancient Greece. Each of the city states
had its own government and rulers. Democratic Governments were set up. The city states often quarrelled among themselves. In the end there emerged, two powerful city states of Sparta and Athens. The Athenian democracy reached its zenith during the rule of Pericles. Ultimately the wars and conquests of Philip and Alexander of Macedonia put an end to the city states and Alexander built the first Greek Empire. As a result of this, trade developed between Europe and Asia. During the 2nd Century BC the Romans attacked the Greeks and Greece became a part of the Roman Empire.

Contributions of Ancient Greece to World culture

Feudalism in Medieval Europe

Feudalism
An important feature of the Middle ages was feudalism. The word “Feudalism” is derived from the Latin word “feud” or “fief which means a land held on condition of service. Feudalism was essentially an agrarian system. The peasants or the farmers were obliged to give a portion of the produce from the land to the lords as rent or taxes or they had to work on their Features of Feudalism
Feudalism was an organization of society and its government based on land ownership. According to the system all lands belonged to the king who divided the kingdom into several fiefs and gave each fief to a baron or tenant-in-chief on condition of military and administrative services and other aids to the lord. As the fiefs were granted to bishops and other church dignitaries, they also came under the category of tenants-in-chief. The king in his turn granted protection to them in times of danger. Thus feudalism was a political arrangement in its origin. The baron in his turn subdivided the land into several manors and gave each manor to a sub tenant on similar conditions. Thus the three important features of feudalism were feudal tenure, vassalage and immunity.

Merits of Feudalism

The rise of the papacy in Medieval Europe and its Consequences

Christianity got political support under the Roman Emperors from the days of Constantine. By the 6thcentury A.D the Pope became the head of the church and kings were the rulers of the kingdoms. Sometimes, the Popes were stronger than the king. There in Europe developed a system of dual leadership under the Popes and the kings. Later, this dual leadership led to the rivalries between the church and the state. The Pope was considered as the representative (Vicar) of Jesus Christ. He was the highest authority of the church and was stronger than the kings. They could give directives to the kings and force them to obey their orders.
The papal authority became supreme due to missionary spirit of Christians. In the establishment of papal supremacy, monasteries played a very significant and important role. The character of monks, educational institutions of monasteries attracted the people towards papacy. It made certain valuable contributions.
Effects of papacy
In the social life, people became God fearing, began to help the poor, the needy and the deserving. The sense of morality and character as well as dignity developed. Beautiful churches were developed. Religious dogmas and hymns became the themes of literature. In the eyes of the papacy, all the high and the low were equal. With the result it created a sense of equality among all. It was due to papal educational institutions that knowledge developed and also could be passed on to the present generation.

Holy Roman Empire

Important Tribes of the World

 Tribe Where They are Found Kalmuks Inhabit the Altai mountains & nearby areas pastroal Kirghiz Occupy the Tien Shan & adjacent Pamirs Gauchos Cowboys of the pampas of Argentina & Uruguay. Mestizos People of mixed white & Indian parentage Ostyaks West Siberian tribe Pygmies Congo basin – Zaire, Congo, Gabon. Boro Amazon basin sub group of red Indians. Semang Malaysia Papuans New Guinea Bushmen or San Kalahari – Namibia, Botswana, Angola Bedouins Nomadic Arabs in Africa & Middle East Masai East Africa – Kenya, Uganda

July 23, 2014

ద్రవ్య బిల్లు అంటే?

శాసన నిర్మాణం పార్లమెంటు అత్యంత ముఖ్యమైన అధికారం, విధి. శాసన నిర్మాణ ప్రక్రియను బ్రిటీష్ రాజ్యాంగం నుంచి గ్రహించారు. ఒక బిల్లు చట్టంగా మారాలంటే ఉభయసభల్లో అనేక దశల్లో వెళ్లాల్సి ఉంటుంది. శాసన నిర్మాణంలో అనుసరించవలసిన ప్రక్రియను రాజ్యాంగంలో ప్రకరణ 107 నుంచి 122 వరకు వివరించారు. చట్టం చేయడానికి ఉద్దేశించిన ప్రతిపాదనలు, చట్టానికి మొదటి దశే బిల్లు. వీటిని నాలుగు రకాలుగా వర్గీకరించవచ్చు. అవి..
1. సాధారణ బిల్లులు (Ordinary Bill) - ప్రకరణ 107
2. ఆర్థిక బిల్లులు (Finance Bill) - ప్రకరణ 117
3. ద్రవ్య బిల్లులు (Money Bill) - ప్రకరణ 100
4. రాజ్యాంగ సవరణ బిల్లు (Constitution Amendment Bill) - ప్రకరణ 368

సాధారణ బిల్లులు
ప్రకరణ 107 ప్రకారం ఆర్థిక బిల్లు, ద్రవ్య బిల్లు కానిది సాధారణ బిల్లు. దీనిని ఉభయసభల్లో దేనిలోనైనా ప్రవేశపెట్టవచ్చు. సాధారణ బిల్లును ప్రవేశపెట్టాలనుకున్నప్పుడు సభ్యుడు ఒక నెల ముందుగానే నోటీసుతో తన సంకల్పాన్ని లిఖితపూర్వకంగా ఆయా సభాధ్యక్షులకు తెలపాలి. దీనికి అనుగుణంగా సభాపతి ఒక తేదీని నిర్ణయిస్తారు. ఏ సభ్యుడైనా బిల్లు ప్రవేశాన్ని వ్యతిరేకిస్తే ఆ సభ్యుడి అభిప్రాయాలను వివరించడానికి సభాపతి అనుమతిస్తారు. సాధారణ బిల్లులో వివిధ దశలు ఉంటాయి. అవి..
ప్రవేశదశ (First Reading): ఇది మొదటి దశ. ఒక బిల్లును సభలో ప్రవేశపెడుతున్న సభ్యుడు, ఆ బిల్లు పేరును, ఆవశ్యకతను, ప్రాధాన్యతను వివరిస్తాడు. ఈ దశలో బిల్లుపైన ఎలాంటి చర్చ జరగదు.
రెండో పఠనం (Second Reading): ఇది రెండో దశ, పరిశీలన దశ. ఈ దశలో ముద్రించిన బిల్లుల ప్రతులను సభ్యులకు ఇస్తారు. అనంతరం బిల్లుపైన సమగ్రమైన, విస్తృతమైన చర్చ జరుగుతుంది. ఈ దశలో
-బిల్లును చర్చించి, వెంటనే ఆమోదించమని అడగవచ్చు.
-బిల్లును సెలెక్ట్ కమిటీకి లేదా రెండో సభ అంగీకారంతో జాయింట్ సెలక్ట్ కమిటీకి నివేదించవచ్చు
-బిల్లుపై ప్రజాభిప్రాయసేరకరణ జరపమని అడగవచ్చు.

Exercise 8: Line Graphs Data Interpretation Solved Questions for Bank PO, UPSC, SSC CGL & MBA Exams

Study the following sales of Apparels, Footwear and Accessories and Answer the following questions:

Exercise 7: Line Graphs Data Interpretation Solved Questions for Bank PO, UPSC, SSC CGL & MBA Exams

Study the graph showing consumption of plastic and metal. Answer the following Data Interpretation Questions with multiple choice given:
1 Q) "The number of years for which the consumption of Metal was less than the consumption of Plastic over the given time period was: (a) One (b) Two (c) Three (d) Four "

Exercise 6: Line Graphs Data Interpretation Solved Questions for Bank PO, UPSC, SSC CGL & MBA Exams

Chart shows the sales history of a Brand. Observe the sales carefully and answer the following questions.

1 Q) "For how many months was the sales value (by units) at its lowest monthly level? (a) One (b) Two (c) Three (d) Four "

Exercise 5: Line Graphs- Data Interpretation Solved Questions for Bank PO, UPSC, SSC CGL & MBA Exams

Study the following graph carefully and answer the questions given below:

1 Q) "Which month showed the highest absolute difference in the Consumer Price Index (CPI) over the previous month? (a) March (b)April (c) May (d)July"

July 22, 2014

Some Important Social Media, Website & Portal Founders on Internet World

 Portal Name Founder Name Google Larry Page & Sergey Brin Facebook Mark Zuckerberg Yahoo David Filo & Jerry Yang Twitter Jack Dorsey & Dick Costolo Internet Tim Berners Lee Linkdin Reid Hoffman, Allen Blue & Koonstantin Guericke Email Shiva Ayyadurai Gtalk Richard Wah kan Whats up Laurel Kirtz Hotmail Sabeer Bhatia

Exercise 4: Bar Graphs Data Interpretation Solved Questions for Bank PO, UPSC, SSC CGL & MBA Exams

Study the following graph carefully and answer the questions given below:

1 Q) "What was the average profit earned by all the three companies in the year 2011? 1) 300 crore 2) 400 crore 3) 350 crore 4) 520 crore 5) None of these"

2 Q) "In which of the following years was the difference between the profits earned by Company B and Company A the minimum? 1) 2006 2) 2007 3) 2008 4) 2010 5) 2011"

July 19, 2014

Coal - Formation, Types, Effect of Sulphur in Coal, Coal Distribution in World & India

Coal-  Also called as Black gold, second largest fuel source in global energy resources. Non-renewable sources, which include coal, oil and natural gas, have been the traditional sources of power for industry, transport and domestic users. Coal originates from the remains of trees, bushes. ferns, mosses, and other forms of plant life that flourished in  swamps and marshes millions of years ago. Important products are derived from coal by a process called pyrolysis-heating of coal in the absence of air which produces coke (a residue) and volatile matter such as coal gas, and a liquid known as coal tar.
Coal varies widely in important physical characteristics such as energy content, carbon percentage, moisture content, presence of contaminants such as sulfur, etc.
High-rank coals are high in carbon and therefore heat value, but low in hydrogen and oxygen. Low-rank coals are low in carbon but high in hydrogen and oxygen content.

 Types of Coal and Their Characteristics Coal Type Percent Carbon Heating Range Values (MMBtu/ton) Heating Avg. (MMBtu/ton) Moisture Content by Weight Sulfur Content by Weight Anthracite (hard coal) 86-97% 22 to 28 25 usually < 15% 0.6% Bituminous (soft coal) 86-45% 21 to 30 24 usually < 20% 1.4% Subbituminous (black lignite) 35-45% 17 to 24 18 20-30% 0.4% Lignite (brown coal) < 35% 9 to 17 13 as much as 45% 1.0%

July 17, 2014

60+ Questions in Analogy - Verbal Reasoning for Civil Services, SSC, Bank PO & APPSC Exams

Marks: Analogy questions in Reasoning carry fair weightage for any civil service, bank competitive entrance exams.
How to Solve Verbal Analogy Questions in Reasoning?
Analogy means similarity i.e. having similar features. Questions on analogy test the ability of a candidate to understand the relationship between two objects and apply the same relationship to find that asked in the question. following these preparation tips in reasoning can give you good score. The broad explanation provided in below examples can clear the conceptual basics in reasoning.

1 Q) "‘Bank’ is related to ‘Money’ in the same way as ‘Transport’ is related to (a) Goods (b) Road (c) Movement (d) Traffic (e) Speed"

2 Q) "‘Fan’ is related to ‘Wings’ in the same way as ‘Wheel’ is related to (a) Round (b) Cars (c) Spokes (d) Moves (e) Air "

3 Q) "‘Fan’ is related to ‘Wings’ in the same way as ‘Wheel’ is related to (a) Round (b) Cars (c) Spokes (d) Moves (e) Air "

4 Q) "‘Skirmish’ is related to ‘War’ in the same way as ‘Disease’ is related to (a) Infection (b) Epidemic (c) Patient (d) Medicine (e) Death "

5 Q) "‘Tree’ is related to ‘Root’ in the same way as ‘Smoke’ is related to (a) Cigarette (b) Fire (c) Heat (d) Chimney (e) Wood "

6 Q) "‘Good’ is related to ®ad’ in the same way as ‘Roof’ is related to (a) Wall (b) Pillar (c) Terrace (d) Window (e) Floor "

7 Q) "‘Oval’ is related to ‘Circle’ in the same way as ‘Rectangle’ is related to (a) Triangle (b) Square (c) Periphery (d) Diagonal (e) Pentagon "

Major Seaports of India and their Importance

There are total 13 major sea ports of India, out of 12 are government and one, Ennore port of Chennai is the corporate one. 12 major ports of India are listed as follows:
1.Kandla Port- Gujarat: The Kandla Port is situated on the Gulf of Kutch near the Gandhidham city in Kutch District of Gujarat. It is a natural deep water port and it serves mainly the state of Gujarat. The Port of Kandla is the first special economic zone in India as well as in Asia. It is considered as India's hub for oil and food grains' imports. Kandla Port is hub for major imports like petroleum, chemicals and iron also export grains,salt and textiles. Port of Kandla is one of the highest earning ports of India, another port in Gujarat is Mundra Port,India’s largest private port.
History of the Port: The history going beyond English rule in India, but the importance came after India indipendance. Due to partition, India lost Port of Karachi and the traders came to port of Mumbai. By this Mumbai port strained beyond capacity. Due to this reason Union government starting the thinking of a new port and they decided it should build in Kandla.

2. Mumbai Port:  Natural Harbour and on West Coast with Konkan on its east and island of Mumbai on its west.. The Mumbai Port is located in the mainland of west Mumbai on the West coast of India with natural deep-water harbor. Mumbai Port is the largest port in India and handles bulk cargo traffic with its four jetties for handling Liquid chemicals, Crude and petroleum products. International container traffic of Mumbai Port is directed to the new and big Nhava Sheva port. The deep waters in the harbour provide secure and ample shelter for shipping throughout the year.

3. Cochin Port- Kerala: Natural Harbour and on west coast is  a major port on the Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean sea route. The port of Cochin lies on two islands of Willingdon and Vallarpadam and the largest container transhipment facility in India. Kochi Port is equipped with maritime facilities Cochin Shipyard, Kochi Refineries and Kochi Marina. Kochi city is famous for its traditional spices and well known as the port city of Fort Kochi during the European colonials. It also get its individual Kochi international airport, third international airport in the state of Kerala.
The port is India's first International Container Transhipment Terminal on Build-Operate-Transfer basis with Dubai Ports World, in the island of Vallarpadam, north of Willington Island. The new state-of-the-art facility will have capacity to handle about three million twenty equivalent units of cargo. Its main advantage from other ports in India is it lies near the busiest international ship channel.

July 16, 2014

Alexander's Invasion & its impact on Indian History

Alexander’s Invasion
• He defeated the last king of the line of Darius, Xerexes in 333 BC and 331 BC. After! occupying the realm of the Persian king, Alexander crossed the Hindukush mountains in eastern Afghanistan in 327 BC.
• He fought many tribes and took the city of Pushkalavati (near the junction of Swat and Kabul rivers) before crossing the river Indus in 326 BC.
• It is stated that the Indian sources are silent on Alexander's campaign. Hermann Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund in A History of India comment that "The memory of Alexander the Great returned to India only very much later with the Islamic conquerors..."
• The king of Taxila accepted Alexander's sovereignty. Alexander met with stiff resistance from the elder Paurava king whom he defeated. He later returned the kingdom to Paurava.
• Conquering the tribal territories around the kingdom of the elder Paurava, he crossed River Akesines (Chenab) and the Hydraotes (Ravi). Over-running the Kathasoi stronghold Sangala, he reached River Hyphasis (Beas). Here, it is said, his troops were unwilling to press on farther.

Aryan tribes known as Janas were led by Janardhans (Tribal chiefs) during their nomadic phase. During this phase wars were fought not for territory but for the possession of cattle known as Gavasthi. During the later Vedic period Janapadas (territorial kingdoms) emerged. In this period, battles were fought not only for the possession of cattle but also for tat of territory. For example, the famous Mahabharata battle known as Kurukshetra was fought between the Pandavas and Kauravas for territory. From the 6th century BC large territorial states known as Mahajanapadas (big kingdoms) emerged.
• The 16 Mahajanpadas have been first listed in Buddhist literature Anguttar Nikaya.
• Bimbisara was a contemporary of Buddha.
• The earliest capital of Megadh was at Rajgir, which was called Girivaraja at that time.
• The city of Pataliputra was founded by Udayin of Haryanka dynasty.
• The Shishunagba dynasty had temporarily shifted the capital to Vaishali.
• The Nandas were the first to invade and acquire Kalinga.
• The Greek writers called Chandragupta Sandrokottas.
• The Achaean ruler of Iran, Darius invaded India in 516 B. C., penetrated into north west and annexed Punjab, west of Indus and Sindh. This area constituted the twentieth province or Satra of Iran.
• The Indian subjects were also enrolled in the Iranian army for their long wars against the Greeks.

July 15, 2014

Moutains- Formation, Types and Examples- Geography for UPSC IAS Exams

What are mountains & how are they formed?
A mountain is a geological landform that rises above the surrounding land. Mountains result from the collision and friction between tectonic plants in the Earth's crust, or between sub-plates, components of the plates. Tectonic plates move very slowly. It can take millions and millions of years for mountains to form. The Himalayan mountains began forming this way about 55 million years ago. The Himalayan mountain range has 30 of the world’s tallest mountains, including Mount Everest, which soars 29,035 feet in the air.

Types of mountains:
Mountains can be classified into five different basic types based on the cause that formed the mountain, type of rocks, shape and placement on land.