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August 20, 2014

Gamma Rays- Formation, Properties, Their difference with X Rays and Applications - Explained

Discovered by - Paul Villard, a French physicist,  is credited with discovering gamma rays. He had discovered they were emitted from radioactive substances and were not affected by electric or magnetic fields.Named as “Gamma rays” three years later by Ernest Rutherford.
-Gamma Rays - are electromagnetic rays like X rays and travel with speed of light. Electromagnetic radiation can be described in terms of a stream of photons, which are mass less particles each travelling in a wave-like pattern and moving at the speed of light. Each photon contains a certain amount (or bundle) of energy, and all electromagnetic radiation consists of these photons.
 -Gamma-ray photons have the highest energy in the EMR spectrum and their waves have the shortest wavelength. Their high frequency makes them more penetrating compared to X Rays.

August 17, 2014

X-Rays- Formation, Properties & Applications Explained

In 1895, Wilhelm Roentgen discovered X-rays. This accidental discovery took place when he was studying cathode rays using an evacuated glass tube. X-Rays are electromagnetic radiations having a wavelength between 10A to 0.01A. In Free Space they travel in a straight line with a velocity of 3 ×10 (power) 8 meters per second and they are Invisible to human Eye.


Formation: When cathode rays strike against a metal of high atomic weight, a new form of radiation called X-rays, are produced. X-rays are generated when a stream of electrons travelling from tungsten filament (cathode) is suddenly stopped by its impact on anodic tungsten target .

August 15, 2014

Liver - Anatomy, Functions, Diseases & Tests Explained

Why is liver called a Gland?
Gland is a organ which can secrete chemicals or hormones. In this case Liver produces bile, a substance needed to digest fats. Bile’s salts break up fat into smaller pieces so it can be absorbed more easily in the small intestine.
The liver is the largest glandular organ in the body. Liver is the only organ in the body that can regenerate itself in human body.
The liver is located in the upper right-hand portion of the abdominal cavity, beneath the diaphragm, and on top of the stomach, right kidney, and intestines. Shaped like a cone, the liver is a dark reddish-brown organ that weighs about 3 pounds ( or 1.5 kgs average)
The liver consists of four lobes, they are - the left, right, caudate, and quadrate lobes.
i) The left and right lobes are the largest lobes and are separated by the falciform ligament. ii) The right lobe is about 5 to 6 times larger than the tapered left lobe.
iii) The small caudate lobe extends from the posterior side of the right lobe and wraps around the inferior vena cava.
iv) The small quadrate lobe is inferior to the caudate lobe and extends from the posterior side of the right lobe and wraps around the gallbladder.

August 13, 2014

INS Vikramaditya - some amazing facts to be known

INS Vikramaditya - Brave as the Sun
Type: Aircraft Carrier to serve India for 40 years
Origin: Russia, commissioned in 1987
Original Name: Admiral Gorshkov
Capacity: 45,000-tonne aircraft carrier.
  • The carrier was purchased by India on January 20, 2004 after years of negotiations at a final price of $ 2.35 Billion in 2010.
  • The 284 metre-long and 60-metre-high INS Vikramaditya has a displacement of 45,000 tons, and an endurance of 13,500 nautical miles (25,000 km) at a cruising speed of 18 knots.
  • When delivered, the INS Vikramaditya will be a 90-per cent new ship and will remain in service for 40 years.
  • The futuristic missile defence system that was supposed to be fitted on the Vikramaditya, called the Long Range Surface to Air Missile (LR-SAM).
  • A fleet of MiG-29K naval fighters designated for INS Vikramaditya have already arrived. The on-board arrester wire of the carrier has been designed to support the MiGs and indigenous naval version of the Light Combat Aircraft.
What is LR-SAM Technology being jointly developed by India and Israel?

August 12, 2014

Fascism in Italy A.D.1922 - A.D.1945

Meaning of Fascism
The term '“Fascism" is derived from the Latin word 'Fasces' means a bundle or group. Mussolini of Italy, who is associated with Fascism, organized in the beginning groups of young persons or gangs called the ‘fasces', to create terror among the people who were considered enemies of the nation.
Fascism rests on four pillars of charismatic leadership, single party rule under a dictator, terror and economic control.
Mussolini believed in the efficacy of these slogans and their accompanying action : “Believe, Obey, Fight” and "The More Force, The More Honour*.

Reasons for the emergence of Fascism
The prevailing economic, social and political conditions were very favourable to the rise of fascism in Italy.
Economic crisis
Italy faced with a great economic crisis on account of the huge expenditure incurred on the war. The national debt increased manifold. There was social unrest and economic distress in the country, the prices of essential goods shot up. Cost of living rose very high. Socialism gathered new strength.
There was great dismay and frustration after the Treaty of Paris. Although a victor and constitute of the Allies, Italy did not gain substantially from the spoils of war.
Disruptive activities of the socialists
On account of the revolutionary ideas of the socialist, unrest had spread in the country.
Need for a charismatic leader
The situation demanded a bold leadership and the same was supplied by the fascist leader Mussolini.

Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini
Mussolini, Benito (1883 -1945)

August 9, 2014

Important Diagnostic Instruments in Medicine - for General Awareness

Electro Cardiography (ECG): Detects changes in ‘electrical potentials' generated by contraction of heart muscles, which are recorded by placing two special electrodes over particular point of the body. It helps in diagnosis of heart diseases, including myocardial infarction (or coronary thrombosis), myocardial ischemia, cardiac arrhythmia.

Electro Encephalograph (EEG): Records the electrical activity of the brain on suitable paper, with the help of two special electrodes placed on the scalp. It helps in diagnosis of epilepsy, intracranial tumours (or brain tumours).

Electromyography (EMG): Involves graphic recording of muscle ‘action potentials’, which helps in diagnosis of various neuromuscular or muscular diseases and disorders.

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