December 8, 2015

United Nations Organization - Objectives, Organs, Structure and Achievements

The United Nations Organization, an international organization was established in 1945. During the Second world war (in 1941) the American president F.D. Roosvelt and the British prime minister Winston Churchill met on a battle ship and concluded the Atlantic charter. This charter was discussed in various conferences.
It was finally discussed in the San Francisco conference of 1945. The UN charter was signed at San Francisco on 26,h June 1945. As the result UNO came into existence on 24h October 1945. At present UNO has 192 members with its head quarters at New York.

Main Objectives
To maintain international peace and security.
To develop friendly relations among nations.
To settle international disputes by peaceful means.
To be a centre for helping nations to achieve these goals.

Organs of the UNO

Second World War A.D.1939 - A.D.1945 - Causes, immediate cause, opening events, results of war.

Second World War was a global military conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945. The great powers of the world, split up into two opposing military alliances the Allies and the Axis and involved in the war. It was the most widespread war in history. In a state of 'total war' the major participants placed their entire economic, industrial and scientific capabilities at the service of the war effort, erasing the distinction between civilian and military resources. The Treaty of Versailles left many countries dissatisfied. Adverse conditions such as, repartition and unemployment led to new radical ideas, which led to the second world war.

Causes for the Second World War Treaty of Versailles:
The first world war ended by the Treaty of Versailles. It was vindictive in nature and many countries were dissatisfied. According to the treaty, Germany was stamped as an aggressor and levied a huge war indemnity. She had been deprived of several territories which included Alsace and Lorraine. The rich Saar coal mine was given to France for 15 years under free lease license. Her army was reduced. All these humiliating terms against Germany resulted in the Second World War.
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Spirit of Nationalism

The American War of Independence (1775 -1783)

In the early 16th century, many English Protestants were unhappy with the Church of England. In September 1620, about 100 religious dissenters, who later came to be known as the Pilgrim Fathers, set sail for America aboard a vessel the Mayflower. They hoped to settle in North America and live and worship in peace. Intending to land in Virginia, instead they arrived at the coast of New England after a stormy voyage.
Before they landed, the Pilgrims drew up an agreement, the Mayflower Compact, establishing a government for their colony, which they named Plymouth Plantation. Half the settlers did not survive their first winter in America, but help from the Native Americans helped the colony to eventually flourish. The hospitable Natives helped the settlers to farm crops suited to the land and climate, and also traded goods with them.
In the late 16th and 17th centuries, many English, French and Dutch emigrants went to North America. They supported themselves by cultivating crops that they could sell to England, like tobacco, indigo, and rice. Most of the workers on the plantations were slaves and servants bound by contracts.
By 1733 thirteen English colonies had been founded along the eastern coast of North America, the last being Georgia. The French occupied Canada.
1.      The northern colonies of New England were occupied by Puritans, who had got leave from James I to found an English colony in America. They loved learning and education and were politically more conscious.
 2.       The southern colonies like Georgia and Virginia had large estates having tobacco and cotton plantations worked by slaves.
3.       There were other English colonies like Pennsylvania and Maryland occupied by Quakers and Catholics.
Before the 1750s there were sporadic wars between the English and the French colonists over trade and as an extension of quarrels in Europe. In 1753, the French moved south from Canada to occupy part of the Ohio valley.