April 26, 2012

Tuberculosis - APPSC Group 1 Mains - Paper 4

Causative agent

Tuberculosis is caused by a bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It usually affects the lungs (pulmonary tuberculosis). Other parts of the body can also be affected (extrapulmonary tuberculosis) such as lymph nodes, kidneys, bones, joints.

Clinical features

The symptoms of pulmonary TB include low-grade fever, night sweats, fatigue, weight loss, a persistent cough and blood in sputum. Some people may not have obvious symptoms.

Mode of transmission

Tuberculosis is spread through the air. When a person with infective pulmonary tuberculosis coughs or sneezes, the bacteria gets into the air and causes disease if a susceptible person inhales it. Effective antibiotic treatment usually shortens the infectious period to within a few weeks.

Incubation period

Symptoms may occur as early as several weeks after infection, or it may occur after many years. An infected person has the greatest risk of developing TB within the first two years after infection.


People with tuberculosis should seek medical treatment as soon as possible. They are prescribed multiple drug therapy for at least six months. In order to eradicate the bacteria, patients should follow their doctors' instruction and complete the course of treatment.


1. Maintain good personal and environmental hygiene.
2. Adopt a healthy lifestyle, i.e., have balanced diet, adequate exercise and rest.
3. Keep hands clean and wash hands properly.
4. Wash hands when they are dirtied by respiratory secretions e.g. after sneezing.
5. Cover nose and mouth while sneezing or coughing and dispose of nasal and mouth discharge properly.
6. Seek treatment promptly if symptoms similar to tuberculosis appear, particularly persistently cough for more than one month.


April 25, 2012

Amoebic Dysentery - APPSC Group 1 Mains - Paper 4

Causative Agent

Amoebic dysentery is an intestinal infection caused by a parasite called Entamoeba histolytica.

Clinical Features

Infection by Entamoeba histolytica may be asymptomatic. The symptoms of amoebic dysentery include fever, chills, diarrhoea and abdominal pain. Stool may contain blood and/or mucus. Entamoeba histolytica may rarely invade the liver to form an abscess. Less commonly, it spreads to other parts of the body, such as the lungs or brain. Other complications include inflammation of the intestine or rarely perforation.

Mode of Transmission

Transmission of amoebic dysentery occurs mainly by ingestion of faecal contaminated food or water containing the cyst of Entamoeba histolytica. Transmission can also occur sexually through oral-anal contact.

Risk Factors

People who live in institutions and those who travel to developing countries with poor sanitary conditions are at a higher risk of getting the disease.

Incubation Period

The incubation period is variable, and may range from a few days to several months. It is usually 2 to 4 weeks.


Diagnosis is usually made by microscopic examination of patient's stool specimen for Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites and/or cysts. Presence of red blood cells and white blood cells facilitates the diagnosis of amoebic dysentery.


Treatment should include fluid replacement and antibiotics.


1. Maintain good personal, food and environmental hygiene.
2. Wash hands properly with soap and water before eating or handling food, and after toilet or changing diapers.
3. Drinking water should be from the mains and preferably boiled.
4. Purchase fresh food from reliable sources.
5. Do not patronize illegal hawkers.
6. Cook food thoroughly.
7. Exclude infected persons and asymptomatic carriers from handling food and from providing care to children, elderly and immunocompromised people.
8. Persons with gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhoea should refrain from work/school and seek medical consultation promptly.
9. When traveling to a country with poor sanitary conditions, persons should take the following precautions:
* Always wash hands before eating and after going to toilets
* Drink only boiled water, or bottled drinks by reputable companies, and pasteurized milk or dairy products
* Avoid drinks prepared by ice of unknown origin
* Eat only thoroughly cooked food
* Avoid peeled fruits and vegetables that are not thoroughly cleaned
* Do not patronize illegal hawkers


April 22, 2012

Cholera _ APPSC Group 1 Mains - Paper 4


Causative agent

Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio choleraeVibrio cholerae serogroups O1 and O139 can cause epidemic cholera.

Clinical features

Although most patients have mild symptoms, such as mild diarrhoea or vomiting, some patients may have severe symptoms with sudden onset of profuse diarrhoea with rice-water like and fishy smelling stool, nausea and vomiting.  Without prompt treatment, these patients may die from severe dehydration.

Mode of transmission

Cholera is usually contracted through consumption of food or water contaminated with Vibrio cholerae.  Human-to-human transmission rarely happens.

Incubation period

Ranges from a few hours to 5 days, usually 2-3 days.


The mainstay of treatment is timely and adequate rehydration. For mild dehydration, patients may take oral rehydration salts (ORS) fluid.  Severe dehydration cases usually require intravenous rehydration to replenish  fluid and mineral loss.  For severe cases of diarrhoea, antibiotics may be used .


Preventive measures are based on good personal, food and environmental hygiene:

1.  Personal hygiene
  • Wash hands properly with soap and water
    • before eating or handling food
    • after toilet or changing diapers
    • after handling garbage
  • Avoid handling food when having symptoms of vomiting or diarrhoea

2.  Food hygiene

  • Purchase food from reliable sources.  Do not patronise illegal hawkers
  • Handle raw, cooked and ready-to-eat food with separate utensils and store them separately
  • Ensure thorough cooking of food before consumption 
  • Discard any spoilt food 
  • Clean refrigerator regularly. Maintain the fridge at or below 4°C and freezer at or below -18°C
  • Supervisors of food premisesshould use water from reliable sources to keep live fish or shellfish. They should also filter and change fish tank water frequently and cleanse the fish tanks regularly

3.  Environmental hygiene

  • Maintain proper drainage system
  • Dispose of infected person's stool properly


April 21, 2012

Bacillary Dysentery - Group 1 APPSC Mains -Paper 4

Causative agent

Bacillary dysentery is an intestinal infection caused by a group of Shigella bacteria which can be found in human gut.

Clinical features

The illness is characterized by sudden onset of fever, diarrhoea with abdominal cramps and nausea or vomiting. The stool may contain blood and mucus. Mild and asymptomatic illness can occur. Complications include toxic dilatation of large intestine and acute kidney disease.

Mode of transmission

Bacillary dysentery is transmitted directly by faecal material of a patient/carrier or indirectly through contaminated food and water. Infection may occur after consuming a small number of the germs. Therefore, chance of spread among household members or in institutions can be very high. It occurs more commonly amongst young children.

Incubation period

Usually 1 - 3 days, but can be up to 7 days.


Infected persons in institutions should be isolated. They should observe personal hygiene to avoid infecting other persons. Treatments include fluid replacement and antibiotics.


1. Keep the premises and kitchen utensils clean. Dispose rubbish properly.
2. Keep hands clean and fingernails trimmed.
3. Wash hands properly with soap and water before eating or handling food, and after toilet or changing diapers.
4. Drinking water should be from the mains and preferably boiled.
5. Purchase fresh food from reliable sources. Do not patronize illegal hawkers.
6. Avoid high-risk food like shellfish, raw food or semi-cooked food.
7. Wear clean washable aprons and caps during food preparation.
8. Clean and wash food thoroughly. Scrub and rinse shellfish in clean water and immerse them in clean water for sometime to allow self-purification. Remove the viscera if appropriate.
9. Store perishable food in refrigerator, well covered.
10. Handle and store raw and cooked food especially seafood separately (upper compartment of the refrigerator for cooked food and lower compartment for raw food) to avoid cross contamination.
11. Clean and defrost refrigerator regularly and keep the temperature at or below 4oC.
12. Cook food thoroughly.
13. Do not handle cooked food with bare hands; wear gloves if necessary.
14. Consume food as soon as it is done.
15. If necessary, refrigerate cooked leftover food and consume as soon as possible. Reheat thoroughly before consumption. Discard any addled food items.
16. Exclude infected persons and asymptomatic carriers from handling food and from providing care to children.


April 18, 2012

Biomass - APPSC Group 1 Mains - Paper 4

In India, the concept of energy as " Shakti " has been at the focus of philosphic, scientific and metaphysical thought from time immemorial. The conventional energy sources like fossil fuels, crude oil, natural gas etc. are dwindling fast. The world stock of non-renewable natural sources indeed have decreased. There is every necessity of going for renewable alternative resources for energy. The energy crisis of 1973 left scientists to accelerate the renewable energy programmes.

The important renewable energy sources are sun, wind, tides, waves, biomass, hydro-power (from water) charcoal, peat, fuelwood, geothermal energy etc. The pattern of energy consumption in India shows that 56.5 % of total energy is from the commercial sources like coal, oil " electricity and remaining 43.5% is non-commercial energy. Fire wood, charcoal, agricultural residues, vegetable wastes, cow dung, urban and industrial wastes, forest residues are the main sources of this non-commercial energy.

The most efficient utilization of these resources comes when they are converted to biomass by appropriate technologies. The non-commercial biomass fuels are the main sources of energy available in the rural areas. The 80% of our population resides in villages are dependent on this non-commercial biomass fuels.

II. Concept of Biomass

The term biomass refers to all organic matter generated through photosynthesis and other biological processes. The ultimate source of this renewable biomass is the inexhaustible solar energy which is captured by plants through photosynthesis. It includes both terrestrial as well as aquatic matter such as wood, herbaceous plants, algae, aquatic plants and residues, like straw, husks, corncobs, cow dung, saw-dust, wood shavings and other wastes like disposable garbage, night soil, sewage solids, industrial refuse etc. In spite of all these biomass resources available in India, they are not being properly utilized. In fact, a large amount of it is disposed off by burning in open fields causing serious air pollution.

In order to utilise these resources properly, biomass should be converted to energy which can meet a sizeable percentage of the country's demands for fuel as well as energy. Three main approaches can be adopted for generation and proper utilization.

1. Collection of agricultural and forest residues to produce fuels, organic manures and chemical feed stock.

2. Collection of urban and industrial wastes as fuel in boilers and as a feedstock for producing methane and some liquid fuels.

3. Growth of some specific energy plants for use as energy feed stock and cultivation of commercial forestry, aquatic and marine plants for different products.

By a number of processes, the collected wastes can be converted into solid, liquid and gaseous fuels. The technologies include thermal, thermo-chemical and bio-chemical conversions. The actual processes in these technologies are combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, alcoholic fermentation, liquefaction etc.

The main products of conversion technologies are energy (thermal, steam, electricity), solid fuels (charcoal, combustibles) and synthetic fuels (methanol, methane, hydrogen gas etc.). These can be used for different purposes like cooking, lighting, heating, water pumping, electricity generation and as industrial and transport fuels.

III. Types of Biomass

Depending on the nature and availability of these wastes and organic residues they can be utilized in different manners as described here.

1. Fuel biomass

By some processes and procedures, biomass products like fuel gas, liquid fuels, gaseous fuels etc. are obtained, which are given here

a. Biomass from plants or animal origin are directly burnt for cooking and other purposes. Municipal and sewage wastes, industrial wastes and agricultural wastes are converted to energy which can meet the demand for energy in rural sector.

b. Paddy straw and rice husk can be profitably converted to fuel gas by thermal decomposition (Combustion)

c. Ethanol, which is used as a liquid fuel can be produced from carbohydrates by alcoholic fermentation.

d. When wood and agricultural residues are heated in the absence of air (pyrolysis), charcoal is the resultant product which can be used as a fuel more advantageously than wood.

e. By the process of gasification, gas is evolved which can be used as a fuel for engines.

f. Biogas, which is popular in rural areas is produced by anaerobic fermentation from farm wastes.

2. Feed biomass

Conventionally, crop residues are used as cattle-feed. However, some of them with high percentage of lignin or non-digestible constituents need certain treatments such as soaking in water, alkali/alcohol to make their use as a fuel. The oil-cakes of various crop seed like cotton, rubber, tobacco etc. can also be used as a feed after extraction of toxic materials.

3. Organic fertilizer biomass

Dry fermented slurry can be used as a direct organic fertilizer for crop land.

4.Fibre biomass

The fibrous agricultural wastes and residues are being profitably utilised for making pulp for cheap grade paper.

5.Chemical biomass

Highly siliconous agricultural residues like rice husk and rice straw can be converted into useful chemicals like morphous silicon, silicate products and solar grade silicon. Furfural an another chemical can be produced from biogases, cotton seed hulls, corn-cobs, flax fibres, oat hulls etc., which is used as a solvent for some petroleum products.


Tidal Energy - APPSC Group 1 Mains - Paper 4

Tides are caused through a combination of forces created by the gravitational pull of the sun and the moon, and the rotation of the earth.
Energy naturally present in water bodies or in their movement can be used for generation of electricity. This is achieved broadly in the following ways:
u Tidal energy: Using the "head" (height difference) between low and high tides to create a fall similar to that in a conventional hydropower project. This uses the potential energy of the water body.
u Wave energy: Using the kinetic (dynamic) energy of the waves to rotate an underwater power turbine and generate electricity thereon. This can be loosely described as an underwater wind farm.
u Thermal energy: Using the thermal energy of oceans to generate electricity. This is similar to geothermal power generation where heat trapped in the earth surface is converted into electrical energy.
The tidal energy method broadly works as follows. When a tide comes onto the shore, it is trapped in reservoirs constructed behind barrages (dams). When the tide drops, this collected water is released and is then used like in a regular hydropower project. For the tidal energy method to work effectively, the tidal difference (difference in the height of the high and low tides) should be at least 4m (around 13 ft)
Tidal energy projects are extremely site specific. The quality of the topography of the basin also needs to facilitate civil construction of the power plant.
Tidal energy is a clean mechanism and does not involve the use of fossil fuels. However, environmental concerns exist mainly to do with higher silt formation at the shore (due to preventing tides from reaching the shore and washing away silt) and disruption to marine life near the tidal basin. Wave energy projects have lesser ecological impact than tidal wave energy projects.
In terms of reliability, tidal energy projects are believed to be more predictable than those harnessing solar or wind energy, since occurrences of tides are fully predictable.

Indian context
India being surrounded by sea on three sides has a high potential to harness tidal energy. The three most potential locations in this regard are Gulf of Cambay, Gulf of Kutch (west coast) and Ganges Delta, Sunderbans, West Bengal (east coast).
The total potential of tidal energy in India is estimated at 8,000 mw with Gulf of Cambay accounting for over 90 per cent.


Wave Energy - APPSC Group 1 Mains - Paper 4

Wave power                                                                                                                                        

Ocean wave energy is captured directly from surface waves or from pressure fluctuations below the surface. Wave power systems convert the motion of the waves into usable mechanical energy which in lump can be used to generate electricity. 
Waves are caused by wind blowing on the surface of the water. Whereas tidal power relies on the mass movement of the water body, waves act as a carrier for kinetic energy generated by the wind

Potential of Wave energy in India

The potential along the 6000 Km of coast is about 40,000 MW. This energy is however less intensive than what is available in more northern and southern latitudes. In India the research and development activity for exploring wave energy started at the Ocean Engineering Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras in 1982. Primary estimates indicate that the annual wave energy potential along the Indian coast is between 5 MW to 15 MW per meter, thus a theoretical potential for a coast line of nearly 6000 KW works out to 40000-60000 MW approximately. However, the realistic and economical potential is likely to be considerably less.

Wave energy projects in India[viii][ix]

StatusLocationInstalled Capacity
Prototype Thiruruvananthpuram, Vizhinjam Fisheries Harbor 150 Kw Plant


Ocean Thermal Energy - APPSC Group 1 Mains - Paper 4

Ocean Thermal Energy

The main objective of ocean thermal energy or Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) is to turn the solar energy trapped by the ocean into  usable energy. OTEC systems use the ocean's natural thermal gradient"the fact that the ocean's layers of water have different temperatures to drive a power-producing cycle. As long as the temperature between the warm surface water and the cold deep water differs by about 20°C (36°F), an OTEC system can produce a significant amount of power.


OTEC has a potential installed capacity of 180,000 MW in India.
Current OTEC Projects in India

StatusLocationInstalled Capacity
Prototype "Sagar Shakthi"
35km off Tiruchendur coast
1 MW


  • OTEC-produced electricity at present would cost more than electricity generated from fossil fuels at their current costs.
  • OTEC plants must be located where a difference of about 40 degrees Fahrenheit occurs year round.
  • Ocean depths must be available fairly close to shore-based facilities for economic operation.
  • Construction of OTEC plants and laying pipes in coastal waters may cause localized damage to reefs and near-shore marine ecosystems


April 17, 2012

Centre State Legislative Relations - APPSC Group 1 Mains - Paper 2

The framing fathers of the Indian Constitution had, keeping in view the histori­cal, administrative, economic and regional need of the country adopted a federal polity for its gov­ernance. It fulfilled almost all the conditions required for the system. One of the essential features of a federal polity is the distribution of powers between the Centre and the States through the Constitution and not by any other means. The Con­stitution of India provides the scheme of the Central-State rela­tions quite in detail in two parts -Part XI, Chapter I explains legisla­tive relations and Chapter II ad­ministrative relations but financial relations are contained in the Part XII of the Constitution. In the scheme of distribution of legisla­tive powers, it has largely adopted i the method followed by the Gov- : erhment of India Act 1935 which : was on the pattern of the Cana- dian system, and divides the pow- j ers between the Union and the states in three lists - the Union List, the State List and the Concurrent List: The Union List: It consists of 97 subjects of national importance i.e. Defence, Foreign Affairs, Rail­ways, Airways etc. It is the longest of the three and under Art 246 Par­liament has exclusive power to make laws with respect to any of the matters enumerated in this list. In the course of the working of this scheme some amendments have been incorpo­rated in it in the form of addition or deletion that are as follows:

       Entry 2A was inserted by the Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976. It re­lates to the deployment of any armed force in any state in aid of the civil power.

       Entry 92A inserted concerning taxes on the sale or purchase of goods other than newspa­pers in the course of inter-state trade or commerce. It was in­ serted by the Constitution (Sixth Amendment) Act, 1956.

       Entry 92B inserted taxes on the consignment of goods. It was inserted by the Constitution (46th Amendment) Act, 1982.

       Entry 33 concerning property. It was deleted by the Constitu­tion (7th Amendment) Act 1956.

Thus to be brief 3 new entries were added and one was deleted making it a total of 99 instead of 97. Since serial numbers are not affected by amendment, it is still 97. Over and above some entries in this list are amended. For ex­ample, Entry No 63 concerning Uni­versity of Delhi declaring it to be an institution of national impor­tance was amended by 32nd Amendment Act 1973, Entry 67 concerning historical monument by 7th Amendment Act 1956, Entry 78    concerning High Courts by 15th Amendment Act 1963, and Entry 79    again concerning High Courts
by 7th Amendment Act, 1956.

The State List: It consists of 66 entries on which the state leg­islature has been given the exclu­sive powers to make laws under Art 246 (3) These entries are of local importance, such as public 

order and police, local government public health and sanitation, ag­riculture etc. Like Union list this has also been amended as per detail given below:

Deleted Entries: Entry No 11 concerning education, Entry No 19       concerning forests, Entry No 20   concerning wild animals, En­try No 29 concerning weights and measures and Entry No 36 con­cerning property through Amend­ments of the Constitution. Entries 11,19,20 and 29 by 42nd Amend­ment Act 1976 and Entry No 36
by 7th Amendment Act 1956.

Amended Entries: —  Entry 1. (Public order) by (42ndAmendment) Act 1976.

  Entry 2.  (Public) by (42ndAmendment) Act 1976.

  Entry 3. (High Court) by (42nd Amendment) Act 1976.

  Entry 12 (Libraries) by (7thAmendment) Act 1956.

  Entry 24 (Industries) by (7thAmendment) Act 1956.

  Entry 54 (Taxes) by (Sixth Amendment) Act 1956.

  Entry 55 (Taxes) by (42ndAmendment) Act 1976.

This we find that in the State list 5 entries have been deleted and 7 entries amended/modified but no new item was added to it.

The Concurrent List : It con­sists of 47 subjects such as crimi­nal law, transfer of property, mar­riage divorce, etc. Since the sub­jects are of common interest for both the Union and State Gov­ernment, both of them can make laws on any subject mentioned in this list. But in case of conflict 

between the Union and the State Law the Union law will prevail as 'per Art 254. 

This list has also been amended ; several times as per detail given below:

Addition of Entries: -

1.                 Entry 11A - Administration of justice.

2.                 Entry 17A - Forests

3.                 Entry 17B - Protection of wild animals.

4.                 Entry 20A -Population         

5.                 Entry 33A - Weights and measures                                      
These entries were inserted by  (42nd Amendment) Act 1976 at­
one stroke and the following en­tries were amended as per the detail:

1.  Entry 25 (Educate) by (42nd Amendment) Act 1976

2.                Entry 33 (Trade and Commerce) (3rd Amendment) Act 1954

3.                Entry 40 (Archaeological Sites) by (7th Amendment) Act 1956

4.                Entry 42 (Property) by (7th Amendment) Act 1956
Thus we find that in this list 5 new items were added and 4 were amended or modified, but  no entry was not deleted.             

Residuary Powers : As in Canada, the residuary powers of legislation are vested in the Union ; under Art 248. It implies the power of making laws and imposition  of any tax not mentioned in ei ther of the state or concurrent lists (Entry No 97th of the Union List). There is one exception in this case. The State of Jammu and Kash­mir enjoys special status and in case of residuary powers it has an exclusive jurisdiction.

Generally the law making powers for the residuary item are vested in the states in a federal set up such as USA, Switzerland and Australia but India makes a de­parture from this practice. In the initial stages of the framing of

Constitution, it was decided to leave the residuary powers with the states. But after the partition of the coun­try the approach towards federal­ism was changed. Then it was decided to have a strong Centre and this was why the residuary powers were given to the Centre.

All the three lists are detailed in Scheduled VII of the Constitu­tion and addition, deletion or modification in any of the lists can be done by adopting the pro­cedure as provided in the Consti­tution under Article 368. This method has been applied many a time for the purpose of any change in any of the list as we have noted above. Over and above the Con­stitution permits the Parliament to make laws on any matter in the state list without amending the Constitution either by following a particular procedure or under certain circumstances as per de­tail given below: -

(a) In National Interest : Art 249 provides that the Rajya Sabha can pass a resolution supported by not less than two-thirds ma­jority of members present and voting, declaring that in the na­tional interest Parliament should make laws with respect to any matter enumerated in the state list, as speci­fied in the resolution, for the whole or any part of the territory of India for a maximum of one year at a time. However, the Rajya Sabha can repeat this resolution for any number of times but not for all time to come. Basically it is a tem­porary position. However, such a law made by the Parliament shall remain in force for 6 months only after the expiry of the resolution. This Article has been used only once so far. In 1950 the Parlia­ment resolved to take powers with respect to Trade and Commerce (Entries 26   and 27 of State list) B

(b) During a Proclamation of Emergency : Art 250 says that the Parliament shall have the power
to make a law on any item of the State list when a proclamation of Emergency is in operation under
National Emergency (Art 352) or Financial Emergency (Art 360) and to any State under President's Rule
(Art 356). But such a law of the Centre shall cease to have its ef­fect after 6 months of the expiry
of the Proclamation of Emergency, though the Centre may repeal, or revoke it even earlier. Since the
country has remained under Na­tional Emergency between 1962- 68 and again between 1971-77 and
the States under President's Rule for more than 100 times, the Paliament has enhanced its sphere
of law making during this period. There is no such specific provi­sion in countries of federal set up
such as, USA, Canada and Aus­tralia whereby the distribution of powers between the Centres and
the states is completely upset dur­ing Emergency. Framing fathers of Indian Constitution have fol­
lowed this provision from the Government of India Act 1935. (c)  Legislation by Consent of State :   Art 252 provides that if the Legislature of two or more states pass a resolution and request the Centre to make a law on a certain item of the State list then it shall be lawful for the Parlia­ment to make a law regulating that  matter. Such a law shall apply tothe States that made such a request, though any other State may
adopt it by passing such a resolution subsequently.   The law thus enacted can only be amended or
repealed by the Act of Parliament. This provisions of the Constitu­tion was applied for the first time
in 1953 and again in 1955 when some    of   State    legislatures authorized

Parliament to pass the Estate Duty Act and the Prize Competition Act respectively for the concerned states.

(d) Legislation to Implement International Agreement :   Art 253 empowers the Parliament to
make any law for the whole or any part of the country for imple­menting any treaty, and agree­
ment to fulfil an international obligation even though such law relates to any of the subject of
the State list.

(e)  Legislation with PriorSanction of the President: There are certain matters which have
been mentioned in the state list, yet no Bill about them can be moved in the State Legislature
without the prior sanction of the Parliament (Art 304). For example trade and commerce within
the state list belongs to this category. (Entry 26).

(0 Reservation of Bills for the Consideration of the Presi­dent : Art 200 of the Constitu­tion says that the Governor of a state has the power to reserve a Bill passed by the State Legislature for the consideration of the Presi­dent of India which in the opin­ion of the Governor would, if it became law, derogate mainly from the powers of the High Court . The President under Art 201 shall have the power to give his assent to such a bill, return it to the State for reconsideration on the basis of his recommendation. In such a situ­ation the State legislature must re-pass that bill within a period of next six months, if it so desires and then it shall be reserved again by the Governor for the reconsidera­tion of the President who shall have the power to give his assent or withhold it or to keep it in abey­ance for any length of time. It means the President in not bound to give his assent to such a Bill unless the suggestions made by him have been incorporated in the Bill. This was done in the case of the Kerala Edu­cation Bill (1959), M.P. Panchayat Bill (1960), and Industrial Dispute West Bengal Bill (1969).
af ter studying the Legislative Scheme of Centre - State relations one thing does come to the sur­face that the framers of the Con­stitution have dealt with this sub­ject quite in detail. The Constitu­tion provides the framework both for usual and unusual circum­stances. Over and above in case of any need there are provisions to modify it through the proce­dure of the Constitution under Art. 268 or even otherwise by just fulfilling certain conditions. Dur­ing the 50 years of working of the Constitution, several times eye­brows have been raised about its being tilted towards the Centre but by and large the position appears to be satisfactory. The Sarkaria Commission has also endorsed this view when it re­marked that there is no need for drastic changes in the existing provisions of the Constitution. The scheme has done reasonably well and has withstood the stresses and strains of time. Let's hope for the best.