Transgenic animals raise several particular moral issues (quite apart from any damage they might do to the environment):
- Are animals that combine species an unethical alteration of the natural order of the universe?
- Is it unethical to modify an animal's genetic make-up for a specific purpose, without knowing in advance if there will be any side-effects that will cause suffering to the animal?
- Does 'creating' animals by genetic engineering amount to treat the animals entirely as commodities?
- Is it unethical to create 'diseased' animals that are very likely to suffer?
- Suffering may last for a long time in these animals as researchers want to conduct long-term investigations into the development of diseases