January 22, 2011

Extremists Role in Second Phase of Independence - APPSC G1 mains - paper 2, sect-1, UNit - 3

Programme & Methods of Extremists
Swadeshi This was a potent weapon that aimed at making India produce everything that was required for economic security. In no way was the country to be obliged to the British for its requirements. Bonfires of foreign cloth, sugar and salt were popularized. The blazing flames were accompanied by shouts of Bande Mataram.
Boycott Swadeshi also meant the boycott of foreign goods. For the Radicals, boycott was not merely of foreign goods but also of government services, honors and titles. Anyone found buying or selling foreign goods was subjected to social boycott, i.e., the Radicals would have no dealings with them.
National education The movement for national education spread across the country under the leadership of Tilak and Lajpat Rai. According to Tilak, national education was the only means of awakening political consciousness and bringing about an all round improvement. Apart from formal learning, the national educational institutions would impart secular, religious and political education as well and emphasis would be on vernacular teaching.

Passive resistance : The policy of non-violent resistance and concerted political action was adopted by the Radicals to achieve their objective. They promoted the spirit of courage, sacrifice and determination in refusing to cooperate with the government for attaining the ultimate goal of swaraj.
Revivalism The religious sentiments of the people were stirred by the Radical Nationalists. Tilak revived the Ganesh and Shivaji festival. The greatness of Rana Pratap, Chandragupta Vikramaditya and Shivaji was revived to inspire the masses and instil them with self-confidence and pride about India's glorious past. This had perhaps some negative effect on the relations between Hindu muslim unity.

1.   The Moderates had faith in the British sense of justice and fair play.
2.   The Moderates idealized British institutions and culture. They believed that the benefits of the foreign rule were numerous.
3.   The Moderates aimed at 'swaraj' within the framework of the British rule.
4.   They used constitutional methods of prayers, petitions and resolutions and worked within the framework of law.
5.   The Moderates were supported by the western educated Indians, but they could not connect with the masses.
6.   The prominent Moderate leaders were Dadabhai Naoroji. Gokhale and Surendranath Banerjea who were willing to accept a slower pace of reforms.
1.   The Radicals were suspicious of the intentions of the British. They disliked and questioned them.
2.   They believed that Indian culture and traditions were superior and drew inspiration from India's past glory.
3.   The Radicals demanded nothing less than 'absolute' swaraj or complete independence as the goal for India.
4.   The Radicals believed in an aggressive approach. They used the tools of swadeshi. Boycott, passive resistance and non-cooperation to gain their demands.
5.   The Radicals broadened their base to include the masses. The ordinary man on the street as well as the housewife at home was encouraged to defy the might of the British rule, by simply boycotting foreign sugar, salt and soap.
6.   Radical leaders like Tilak, Lajpat Rai, Bipin Chandra Pal and Aurobindo Ghosh did not compromise with the British.

The trio of Radicals who came to be called as Lal-Bal- Pal were Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Bipin Chandra Pal respectively. This leadership aroused unprecedented response from the masses and paved the way for others who followed a positive course for India's freedom struggle.
Born in 1856 at Ratnagiri in Maharashtra, Tilak was called the 'father of radical nationalism'. After successfully completing a degree in law, Tilak became fully involved with the nationalist movement. He founded the Poona New English School and the Deccan Education Society (1884). The Fergusson College at Poona was also established by this Society. Bal Gangadhar Tilak
His political beliefs Tilak was instrumental in changing the nature of the Congress from being a 'pleader to a demander'. Swadeshi and boycott became the mantra of the nationalists. His assertive demand of Swaraj infused a new life to the spirit of the Indian national movement. To instil confidence in his countrymen, Tilak said, 'Though downtrodden and neglected, you must be conscious of your power of making administration impossible. . . It is you who manage the railroad and the telegraph...'
His programme of work Tilak believed that if changes were to be made in die country, words were insufficient. He emphasized action and action alone. In his two weeklies, the Mahratta and the Kesari, he launched a bitter attack against the government. He demanded that political rights be granted to the Indians. Tilak's popularity alarmed the government. He was charged with seditious writing and deported to Mandalay prison in Burma.
In 1893 Tilak began the celebration of the Ganapati festival in Maharashtra. To instill a sense of patriotism in the masses, he revived die Shivaji festival as well. He also organized akharas and lathi clubs to train the youth in India to be brave enough to defy the British power. In 1897, when famine affected Maharashtra, Tilak set up a relief organization and started no-rent campaigns to oppose the British rule.
As a nationalist leader Tilak became the leader of the radical wing of the Congress after the Surat split. He transformed the anti-partition movement which began in Bengal into a national movement for swaraj. If Tilak was at the centre of the split that took place, then he was also at the centre of the reconciliation in 1915. He was also instrumental in establishing the Home Rule Movement along with Annie Besant in 1916. This movement added new vigour to the national spirit in the country.
What Tilak preached during this period was later reflected in Gandhi's ideals. The stress on Swadeshi, boycott and non-cooperation continued.
Tilak was a scholar and a writer. His famous books are Gita Rahasya and Arctic Home in the Vedas. He endeared himself to the people who called him 'Lokmanya' (respected by the people). Tilak died in 1920. Gandhi paid tribute to him in these words, 'Let us erect for the only Lokmanya of India in imperishable monument by weaving into our lives his bravery, his simplicity, his wonderful industry and his love of his country.'
Born in 1858, in Sylhet (Bangladesh), Bipin Chandra Pal is called the 'father of revolutionary thought in India'. He began his career as the headmaster of school, before entering the national movement.
As a nationalist Bipin Chandra Pal joined the Brahmo Samaj and worked for social reforms. Thereafter he joined the Indian National Congress in 1886 and established himself as a brilliant orator. He made a forceful speech against the discriminator)' Arms Act. Along with Tilak and Lajpat Rai, he formed the trio who expounded the ideals of swaraj, swadeshi, boycott and national education. Though he regarded Surcndranath Bancrjca as his political guru, yet he drifted away from the Moderates due to their passive approach towards the British, as he stood for stronger methods of agitation.
During the anti-partition movement, Bipin Chandra Pal toured different parts of the country carrying the message of swadeshi and boycott.

As an economist Bipin Chandra Pal emphasized the need for economic revival in India. According to him:
- Indigenous industries were to be developed.
-The rich had to be taxed heavily .
- Work hours had to be fixed at forty-eight per week.
- Wages had to be increased.
-Swadeshi and boycott had to be followed if freedom was desired.
Personal beliefs Bipin Chandra Pal believed that hardship was the price to be paid for freedom. When Aurobindo Ghosh, the editor of Bande Mataram was charged with sedition, Bipin Chandra refused to testify, following which he was imprisoned for six months. This led to a major change in his outlook to life.
Bipin Chandra Pal believed that education of women would bring about moral and social regeneration. He was against the caste system. He was deeply influenced by Vedantic philosophy. He opposed the principle of non-cooperation, and so quietly distanced himself from active politics. Bipin Chandra died in 1932.

Lala Lajpat Rai (1865-1928)
Lala Lajpat Rai was born in 1865 in Punjab. He began his career as a lawyer in Hissar. Later he shifted to Lahore and continued his legal practice.
As an educationist and a writer As Lala Lajpat Rai was closely associated with the Arya Samaj, he was instrumental in the expansion of DAV College at Lahore in 1886. He also set up the Servants of the People's Society and opened orphanages, hospitals and schools. He worked tirelessly for the welfare of the oppressed and downtrodden.
Lala Lajpat Rai was a prolific writer. He wrote biographies of Mazzini, Garibaldi and Dayanand Saraswati among others. While in America he started a monthly magazine called Young India to spread the message of swaraj. His publications included, Young India, England's Debt to India, The Political Future of India. He also started an Urdu daily, Vande Mataram and English weekly, People. His book on national education called for reform of the education system prevalent in the country.
As a nationalist Lala Lajpat Rai was a part of the Congress since its inception. He was greatly disturbed by the partition of Bengal and went to England to persuade the authorities not to allow it. Having failed in his attempt, he took a keen interest in the anti- partition movement and encouraged the masses to fight repression whole-heartedly. He believed that 'nationalism is nurtured by the blood of martyrs'. He was convicted of seditious speeches and deported to Mandalay for six months.
Lala Lajpat Rai also presided over the Calcutta session of the Congress in 1920. The resolution for non-cooperation was adopted in this session. Though he believed in a tougher stand, yet he decided to support Gandhi's proposal for the greater good of the country and spread this message around the country. After the suspension of the Non-cooperation Movement he joined Motilal Nehru and his Swaraj Party, which he left at a later date. He was elected to the Central Legislative Assembly on more than one occasion. To mobilize public opinion he even went to America and supported the Ghadar Party, an organization founded by Indians in the USA and Canada, with the aim to liberate India from the British rule.


1 comment:

Prince Tiger said...

Good job brother saidul its a great help to my class ten icse projectbut it wouldbe better if you'd also write an article on moderates but once again thank you!!!!!!!