November 6, 2016

Part-12: 30+ Indian Polity Bits for APPSC TSPSC Exams(TM)


Part-11: 30+ Indian Polity Bits for APPSC TSPSC Exams(TM)


The Hwang -Ho or the Yellow River civilization in China (3500-3000 BC)

The history of the human race covers the entire period since man first appeared on earth. By about 4000 BC the accumulated knowledge and skills of the preceding thousands of years, combined with new discoveries of metals enabled man to live in urban societies. The emergence of this stage was a revolution in human history known as the metal age revolution. It led to the emergence of the first civilizations which are known as River Valley Civilizations. Such river valley civilizations were noted for the effective use of metal implements for Cultivation, weapons and domestic use.
The Bronze Age civilizations which flourished in different parts of the world between 5000 BC and 500 BC were
1.            The Indus Valley civilization or the Harappan culture (3250 to 2750 BC)
2.            The Tigris - Euphrates civilization of Mesopotamia, the modern Iraq (3500 BC to 1000 BC)
3.            The Nile Valley Civilization in Egypt (4000-500BC)
4.            The Hwang -Ho or the Yellow River civilization in China (3500-3000 BC)

The early Chinese Civilization or The Hwang-Ho Valley Civilization
The Hwang-Ho is known as Yellow river because it brings the Yellow alluvial soil and deposits it on its banks. The civilization represents the largest unbroken chain of development known to humanity. The role of rivers Hwang- Ho, and Yang-tze Kiang are significant in shaping the culture, civilization and History of China. The Hwang-Ho is called sorrow of China as its annual floods cause widespread destruction of both possessions and to agriculture. The geography and topography of China caused the civilization to develop in isolation. The Chinese people belonged to the Mongol race. They have yellow complexion, short, oblique eyes, snubbed nose and black hair.

Political History of Ancient China
Fu Xi was the first known king. The Shang dynasty (1766-1122.BC) unified the territories of Yellow river. The succeeding Chou dynasty and its ruler Wu-Wang introduced many reforms and the Chou Age is known as the classical Age of China. After the decline of Chou Dynasty China became disunited and feudal lords reigned supreme. Hence this age is known as feudal age. Shi - Huang -Ti who belonged to Chin dynasty, put an end to the feudal control. He is remembered in history as the builder of the great wall of China. The Chinese honoured the teachings of great philosophers named Confucius, and Lao tze.

Socio- Economic Condition


September 5, 2016

900+ Pages - Telangana Economy Class Notes - for TSPSC Group 2

I. Indian Economy: Issues and Challenges
Notes Download(PDF)
1. Growth and Development : Concepts of Growth and Development –Relationship between Growth and Development
2. Measures of Economic Growth: National Income- Definition, Concepts and Methods of measuring National Income; Nominal and Real Income.
3. Poverty and Unemployment : Concepts of Poverty – Income based Poverty and Non-Income based poverty ; Measurement of Poverty; Unemployment- Definition, Types of Unemployment
4. Planning in Indian Economy : Objectives, Priorities, Strategies, and Achievements of Five year Plans – 12th FYP; Inclusive Growth – NITI Aayog
II. Economy and Development of Telangana
Notes Download(PDF)
1. Telangana Economy in undivided Andhra Pradesh (1956-2014)- Deprivations (Water (Bachavat Committee), Finances (Lalit, Bhargava, Wanchu Committees) and Employment( Jai Bharat Committee, Girgilan Committee) and Under Development.
2. Land Reforms in Telangana : Abolition of Intermediaries: Zamindari, Jagirdari and Inamdari; Tenancy Reforms ; Land ceiling; Land alienation in Scheduled Areas
3. Agriculture and Allied Sectors: Share of Agriculture and Allied sectors in GSDP; Distribution of land holdings; Dependence on Agriculture; Irrigation- Sources of Irrigation; Problems of Dry land Agriculture; Agricultural credit.
4. Industry and Service Sectors: Industrial Development; Structure and Growth of Industry sector Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) sector; Industrial Infrastructure; Industrial Policy of Telangana; Structure and Growth of Service sector.
III. Issues of Development and Change
Notes Download(PDF)
1. Development Dynamics: Regional Inequalities in India – Social Inequalities - Caste, Ethnicity (tribe), Gender and Religion; Migration; Urbanisation.
2. Development and Displacement: Land Acquisition Policy; Resettlement and Rehabilitation.
3. Economic Reforms: Growth, Poverty and Inequalities – Social Development (education and health); Social Transformation; Social Security.
4. Sustainable Development: Concept and Measurement; Sustainable Development Goals.


July 21, 2016

Salankayana Dynasty - Andhra History

  • Salankayana means ‘Vrishabam’ (holy bull). (Appsc Group 2-2011) & name derived from Gothra name. They were the feudatories of Ikshvakus.
  • Capital City : Vengi/Eluru (West Godavari of Andhra Pradesh).
  • Period: Ruled from 300 to 440 AD.
  • Caste: Brahmins (belief).
  • Symbol of Salankayana: Vrishabam
  • Salankayana greatly patronized Shaivism. (Appsc Group 2-2011).  The Word Salankayana indicates Nandi, the bull of Shiva.
  • 4 coins belong to them found at Ghantasala.
  • Information is available from 10 dhanashasana’s issued by them.
  • According to this inscriptions,
  • They called them as progenitors of Vishwamitra.
  • They called them as Bappa battaraka Pada battaraka.
  • Worshiper of foot of father and fore fathers.
  • Worshiper of Chitra Ratha Swamy.
  • A god in chariot – Sun god.
  • In Ptolemy’s opinion, the people called “salankaini” are located to the west of the river Godavari.

 Important Kings of Salankayana Dynasty:



  • Brihat means Vastness + Palayana means Moving
  • Ancient Indian Kingdom who were based in the modern state of Andhra Pradesh.
  • Ruled Northern Andhra.
  • Ruled between A.D. 270-285.
  • Samanthas of Ikshvaku became independent after decline of Ikshvaku. The kings of Brihatpalayana gothra were the immediate successors of Ikshvakus. 
  • Kondamudi copper plate inscription (near Tenali) is the only source to know the history of Brihatpalayana dynasty.
  • Capital was Koduru near Ghantasala in Krishna District .
  • Kondamudi copper plate inscription, Issued by Jayavarma in around 280 AD- in Prakrit language.    
  • Jayavarma describes himself  as the devotee of Maheswara, calls him Raja and patronize of Brahmanism.
  • Gives information about raise of Brahmanism (shaivism) by pallavans and decline of Buddhism.
Jaya Varma:
  1. Was the only Brihatpalayana ruler known by  Kondamudi copper plate inscription.
  2. He gifted the village of Patur in Tenali Taluk to eight Brahmins.


July 9, 2016

APPSC Group 2 - New Syllabus 2016

APPSC has declared New Syllabus & Pattern for Group 2 - Some Important Changes made in the syllabus are:

Direct Link for PDFDownload Here


APPSC Group 1 - New Syllabus 2016 - Prelims & Mains

APPSC has declared New syallbus for Group 1 - Some Important Changes made in the syllabus are:
As per the newly framed syllabus for the Group-1 recruitment exam, in Section-1 of Paper-2, aspirants will have to read about the role played by people from Andhra in the Telangana Armed Struggle in the chapter on "Role of the Left Parties in Anti-Feudal and Anti-Colonial Struggles". Similarly, in Section-2 of the same paper, they have to understand the developments leading to the formation of the present Telangana state while studying the 'Social and Cultural History of AP'.
Download the syallbus in PDF format from below:

Direct Link for PDFDownload Here


April 20, 2016

Ebola Virus

Ebola Haemorrhagic Fever - Ebola virus infection is systemic, it attacks every organ and tissue of the human body except the bones and skeletal muscles. It is marked by blood clotting and hemorrhaging. They  release proteins that dampen down the immune system response.
They multiply in collagen. Collagen is the tissue that helps to keep the organs in place. The tissue is basically digested by this virus.
The virus causes small blood clots to form in the bloodstream of the patient which slow downs flow. Blood clots get stuck into blood vessels forming red spots on the patient skin. These grow in size as the disease progress. Further these blood clots does not allow a proper blood supply to many organs such as the liver, brain, lungs, kidneys, intestines, breast tissue, testicles, etc.ebola virus appsc


February 29, 2016

Lokayukta - Definition, Authority, Appointment, Roles & Shortcomings -Explained

‘Lokayukta’ has been making news in the recent weeks. Be it in the coverage about the appointment of Retired Justice R.A. Mehta as the authority of Gujarat Lokayukta or in the news about the investigation of corruption charges against Karnataka’s deputy chief minister K.S. Eshwarappa. We also heard this word quite often during the debate on Lokpal bill in 2011. But Lokayukta is not a new concept; it was mooted in 1966, when the Administrative Reforms Commission (ARC) headed by Morarji Desai submitted a proposal for Lokayukta as an anti-corruption body in every State.

What/who is Lokayukta?

The Lokayukta is an anti-corruption authority orombudsman (An ombudsman is an official, appointed by the government or by parliament to represent the interests of the public). He works along with the Income Tax Department and the Anti Corruption Bureau. The Lokayukta (sometimes referred to the institution itself) investigates allegations of corruption and mal-administration against public servants and is tasked with speedy redressal of public grievances.

Which are the States that have this authority?

As on 2015, Only 19 Indian States have Lokayukta (How many states have Lokayuktas in India?) .Maharashtra was the first State to introduce the institution of Lokayukta in 1971. There are no Lokayuktas in Arunachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura and West Bengal. The process to set up Lokayukta in Goa is in progress.


Peninsular Rivers of India(TM)


Banking Structure in India(TM)