July 25, 2009

Special Provisions Relating to SC/ST/Backward Castes/Anglo Indian communities

The Constitution of India has listed the special provisions relating to certain classes in Part XVI. From Article 330 to Article 342, the special provisions have been clearly indicated. Below is a detailed list of all the special provisions relating to certain classes:

  • Article 330: Reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the House of the People - this Article states that a certain number of seats should be reserved in the House of the People for both the Schedule Castes and Schedule Tribes. However, clause b of the Article includes Schedule Tribes excluding those who live in the autonomous districts of Assam. Clause c of the Article includes the Schedule Tribes belonging to the autonomous Assam districts. It is also mentioned in this Article that the total number of such seats assigned to the Schedule Tribes of autonomous Assam districts should match the total number of seats allotted in the House of the People. The seats alloted to the Schedule Castes and Schedule Tribes of a particular state or Union Territory should be proportional to the total number of seats reserved for such state or Union Territory in the house of the People.
  • Article 331: Representation of the Anglo-Indian Community in the House of the People - it is specified in this Article of the Indian Constitution that the President of India has the sole right to elect a maximum of 2 members belonging to the Anglo-Indian section to represent the entire community.
  • Article 332: Reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the Legislative Assemblies of the States - This Article of the Constitution states that a definite number of seats in every state's Legislative Assembly should be alloted to the Schedule Castes and Schedule Tribes. The Schedule Castes and Schedule Tribes of the autonomous districts of Assam are also given seats in the Legislative Assembly. It is also specified that a person not belonging to the Schedule Tribes category of Assam state cannot contest the Legislation Assembly election from any of the constituencies of the districts of the state. Also, all areas outside the periphery of the districts of Assam should not hold any constituency of the Legislative Assembly of the Assam state. The total seats alloted to the state Legislative Assembly of Assam should be in proportion of the total population and the share of the SC/ST in such population.
As per Article332, the number of seats alloted to the SC/STs of a state should follow a proportion to the total number of seats assigned in the Assembly as the total population of the SC/STs in that state with respect to the total state population.

In case of such states as Nagaland, Mizoram, Meghalaya and Arunachal Pradesh, as per the Constitution Act 1987, if all the seats of the Legislative Assembly after the first census of 2000, belong to the Schedule Tribes, then only one seat shall be alloted to other communities. Also, the total number of seats alloted to the Schedule Tribes shall not be less than the existing number of seats in the Assembly of the state.

The Article suggests that the the total number of seats of Schedule Tribes in the Legislative Assembly of Tripura state should be proportional to the total number of existing seats in the Assembly. As per the Constitution Act 1992, the number of the Schedule Tribe members in the Legislative Assembly of Tripura shall not be less than the total number of seats already available in the Assembly.

  • Article 333: Representation of the Anglo-Indian community in the Legislative Assemblies of the States - according to this Article of the Constitution of India if the Governor of any state thinks it necessary to elect one representative of the Anglo-Indian community for the Legislative Assembly of that state then he can do the same. Also, if the governor feels that Anglo-Indian community does not have sufficient representation in the state Legislative Assembly then also he can elect one member of that community for the Assembly.
  • Article 334: Reservation of seats and special representation to cease after 289A - This Article holds the fact that after 60 years of the enactment of the Indian Constitution, certain provisions shall become ineffective. However, it is also specified that the Article will not be applied until and unless the House of the People or the Legislative Assembly gets dissolved because of some significant reason. The Provisions with which this Article deals with include reserving seats for Anglo-Indian community, Schedule Castes and Schedule Tribes in the House of the People or in the Legislative Assembly.
  • Article 335: Claims of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes to services and posts - The Article states that the various claims of the Schedule Castes and Schedule Tribes shall be regarded accordingly. Relaxation of age, lower cut off marks and easier parameters of evaluation for the purpose of selecting SC/ST candidates to different posts and services will remain intact irrespective of the provisions mentioned in this Article.
  • Article 336: Special provision for Anglo-Indian community in certain services - as per this Article, for such posts of Union as postal and telegraph, customs and railway, the members of the Anglo-Indian community will be selected, for the first two years of the initiation of the Constitution, following the rules prevailing before 15th August, 1947. It is also specified that in every two years the total number of seats allotted to the Anglo-Indian community in different services and posts will go down by 10%. The Article states that these provisions will become ineffective after 10 years of the enactment of the Indian Constitution. However, clause 2 of this Article clearly mentions that if a candidate of the concerned community is eligible for any post other than the ones mentioned above then he will be selected with immediate effect.
  • Article 337: Special provision with respect to educational grants for the benefit of Anglo-Indian community - the provisions of this Article deal with the fact that grants to the Anglo-Indian community shall be offered in the first three years of the enactment of the Constitution following the same rules made on 31st March 1948. It is also stated that the amount of such grants will reduce by 10% in every three succeeding years. It is mentioned that after 10 years of the initiation of the Constitution of India all such grants will cease to exist. Moreover, the Article states that only when at least 40% of the admissions in educational units belong to communities other than Anglo-Indians, such grants will be offered to the said community.
  • Article 338: National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes - This Article covers the issues to be dealt with by the said Commission exclusively made for the Schedule Castes and Schedule Tribes. As per the Constitution of India, the Article holds that the Commission should include a Chairperson, Vice-Chairperson and other members all of whom are elected by the President of India. The Commission, according to the Article, has the power to investigate all matters that are related to the safeguard of the Sc/STs. The commission can also exercise its power by summoning any person from any part of the nation to interrogate him regarding a particular issue of the SC/STs. The Commission shall also take necessary measures to improve the socio-economic status of the Schedule Castes and Schedule Tribes. A report specifying whether the safeguards of the ST/SCs are maintained properly shall be submitted to the President of India every year by the Commission.
  • Article 339: Control of the Union over the administration of Scheduled Areas and the welfare of Scheduled Tribes - the Article suggests that a Commission specifying the administration of Scheduled Areas and Welfare of Scheduled Tribes shall be formed by Order of the President after 10 years of the Indian Constitution's enactment. The various procedures and powers of the commission are to be included in the said Order. Planning and execution of various schemes pertaining to the development of the Schedule Tribes included in the executive power of the Union is also mentioned in the Article.
  • Article 340: Appointment of a Commission to investigate the conditions of backward classes - this Article specifies that the President of India can form a Commission by Order that will look into the overall condition of the people belonging to the backward classes. This Commission is also supposed to recommend any state or union the necessary steps through which the underprivileged classes can improve their social and economic status. On the basis of the investigation done, the Commission shall submit a report to the President of India. The President, in turn, shall present such report with a memorandum to both of the Houses of the Indian Parliament and will prescribe the necessary steps to be taken to develop the condition of the backward classes.
  • Article 341: Scheduled Castes - this Article states that the President of India after taking the advice of the Governor of any state or Union Territory, has the right to demarcate tribes, races or castes or a part of any group as Scheduled Castes, in accordance with the law of the Constitution. The president can do the same by issuing a public notification. However, the Parliament of India can, by law, accept or reject the list containing the Scheduled Caste groups.
  • Article 342: Scheduled Tribe - a group belonging to a tribe or an entire tribal community of a state or an Union Territory can be declared as Scheduled Tribe by the President of India through issuing a public notice. The President consults with the Governor of the concerned state or Union Territory before specifying a tribe as Scheduled Tribe. The Parliament of India can decide upon canceling or keeping the particular ST in the list of Scheduled Tribes. However, the public notification issued for declaration of the Scheduled Tribe can be saved by the Parliament.


July 23, 2009

Andhra Pradesh Minerals


Andhra Pradesh is a Mineral rich State ranking 2nd in the Country containing a vast and variety of Mineral Wealth particularly Industrial Minerals. Andhra Pradesh engaged in mining of 42 Industrial Minerals to name a few Limestone, Mica, Barytes, Bauxite, Beach Sands, Steatite, Quartz, Feldspar, Manganese, Dolomite etc. There is a still under-tapped and untapped Mineral Wealth throwing up many opportunities in this field for the new entrepreneurs. The Andhra Pradesh in its Vision 2020 Document recognized Mines and Mineral Sector one of the Growth Engines for accelerating economic activity and building up prosperity to the State. Akin to this the State has also made certain structural changes for the speedy processing and disposal of applications of the interested entrepreneurs in obtaining Mineral Concessions in a transparent time bound manner with a view to save the valuable time to the entrepreneurs. The State has an ambitious programme of processing and granting the Mineral Concessions "Online" keeping in tune the advancement in Information Technology.

Andhra Pradesh occupies a land area of 2.75 lakh underlain by Igneous, Metamorphic and Sedimentary rocks, which is the most prospective region for most of the minerals ranking 2nd in the Country. Out of this area about 2.06 lakh Hectares is covered under mining leases. Still a vast scope is available to bring in from out of mineral potential areas still unexplored under exploitation. The State accounts for considerable reserves of important minerals, produces 42 minerals worth Rs. 2300 crores per annum, employs 5 lakh persons, accounts for Rs. 450 crores revenue to the state exchequer, 2.5% of GSDP and 4 - 5% of the total industrial production with over 5000 private & public sector mines operating in the state, Andhra Pradesh contributes Rs. 200 to 250 crores of Indian Mineral Exports. Mining sector plays a key role in the economic development of the state and it is identified as an important growth engine in its Vision 2020.

Mineral Potential
Andhra Pradesh is endowed with vast and variety of mineral wealth, much of which contains the Industrial Minerals. A wide range of these Minerals occurring in the State find use in Fertilizer, Ceramics, Refractories, Abrasives, Glass, Foundry, Oil Well Drilling, Fillers, Pigments etc. The State produces about 42 Industrial Minerals including certain Minor Minerals. Some of the Minerals produced have placed the State among the leading producers in the Country. These Minerals include Mica, Barytes, Limestone, Dolomite, Fire Clay, Ball Clay, Feldspar, Fullers Earth, Serpentine, Quartz, Quartzite, Silica Sand, Ochres, Asbestos, Talc / Steatite, Pyrophillite, Calcite, Vermiculite, Feldspar, Dimensional Stones etc. The States mineral wealth is either under-tapped or untapped due to various reasons of Technology, Finance, Value Addition etc.

The state accounts for considerable reserves of important minerals, viz, Barytes (97%), Calcite (75%), Vermiculite (27%), Limestone (44%), Garnet (23%), Feldspar (5%) Fuller's Earth (6%), Dolomite, Asbestos (96%), Fire clay, Ball clay (55%), Soapstone, Quartz, Silica sand, Graphite, Quartzite, Diamond, Corundum, Mica, Pyrophillite, Kyanite, Granite, Marble, Ochre, Apatite, Chromite, Shale, Slate, Tungsten, Limeshell, Limekankar, Green Quartz etc., The state have well geological prospective for host of minerals akin to South Africa, Australia & Canada.

Opportunities in Mineral Projects

The State has immense potential of untapped and under-tapped minerals like bauxite, limestone, dolomite, coal, diamonds, oil and natural gas, tungsten, semi-precious stones, beach sands, iron ore, base metals, gold, clays and granites. The State Government invites offers for taking up mining projects in all these untapped and under-tapped potential minerals.

Mineral Resources & Prospects


The state stands 2nd in the Mica deposits and production in the country. The Nellore Mica schist belt is known as the 2nd biggest mica belt in the country extends over a strike length of about 90 KM and covering an area of about 1000 is found around Gudur, Rapur and Atmakur Mandals of the Nellore district. This mica belt is the repository of Muscovite mica, Quartz, Feldspar and vermiculite. Other Deposits of Mica are located in Khammam, Krishna, East and West Godavari, Nellore and Visakhapatnam Districts. The State contributes substantially to the production of Phlogopite & Muscovite Mica. At present bulk of the Mica production comes from Nellore and Visakhapatnam Districts. The book Mica, scrap Mica and Mica Powder are mostly exported due to lack of Mica based industry. There are opportunities for investment in development and establishment of manufacturing units for value added Mica based products.


Huge reserves of Barytes are found in Cuddapah, Prakasam and Nellore districts. World's largest single deposit with an estimate reserve of 70 million tonnes Grey Barytes occurs in Mangampet, Cuddapah district. In addition to these, there are number of snow white and white vein type Barytes occur in Khammam, Prakasam, Ananthapur and Kurnool districts, containing BaSo4 77 to 92% and specific gravity ranges from 3.6 to 4.21. Mangampet Barytes with grade 92% BaSo4 and an average specific gravity of 4.21 is used in oil & gas well drilling. The other grades are catering the needs of Chemical and Paint industries. The Mangampet low grade Barytes is amenable to beneficiate high grade ore to specific requirement and recovery of by-products.

Andhra Pradesh is the leading producer and contributes about 90% of the total country's production. APMDC exploiting the Mangampet deposit under public sector producing about 5 to 6 lakh tonnes per annum and intends to increase the production level to 1 Million Tonne in the coming years. Drilling fluids dominate consumption of world barytes to the extent of 90% of the total production. Most of the production form the state is being exported to USA, Middle East including Saudi Arabia, Oman and UAE, Japan and South East Asia and Eastern Europe after catering to the requirement of ONGC. The Barytes is not reclaimed or recycled for use in other wells due to low cost. The demand for useage of the Barytes in the oil well drilling is increasing with exploration activity.

APMDC is the largest producer of Barytes and intends to increase the production level to one million tonnes through joint sector participation for integrated project covering Maximization of production, beneficiation of low grade Barytes, setting up of Barytes based industries to create value addition and maximization of exports.

Beach Sands / Placer Deposits

Potential Monazite beach placer deposits are found all along the coastal stretch right from Srikakulam district on north to Prakasam district in south and also along the Godavari, Krishna, Nagavalli, and Vamsadara river channels & confluence, which contains Illmenite, Monazite, Zircon, Rutile, Garnet and Sillimanite, out of which Zircon & Monazite are atomic minerals and classified. Illmenite & Rutile are Titanium bearing minerals. The concentration of these minerals are variable ranging from 15 to 20% in the sands, which are economically viable for commercial exploitation. The Geological Survey of India and Atomic Mineral Division have carried out investigations and explorations led to delineation of 16 potential Heavy Mineral Beach Sand Deposits over a cumulative length of 320 KM with an average width of ranging between 128 m and 1150 m from Ramayyapatnam (Nellore dist) in the south to Donkuru (Srikakulam dist) in North with heavies ranging from 20 to 32%.

Generally, beach sands are also called heavy's, even 4% of heavy's are being mined and separated through Gravity process and different mineral components are being used for different purposes, Monazite & zircon in atomic energy, Rutile & Ilmenite for extraction of Titanium, manufacture of super alloys and also as pigments and abrasive, Silliminite in refractory and Garnet in abrasive industry.

The beach sands form the main source of Garnet, Sillimanite, Titanium and manufacture of vast number of down stream products useful in various industries. The vast potential of Monazite sand deposits can sustain large scale industry over longer period for manufacture of Titanium- Di-Oxide and down stream products.

Monazite deposits being classified under atomic mineral category, State Government can take up this issue with the Atomic Energy Department, Atomic Mineral Division and Indian Rare Earth's Ltd. for taking up exploitation and processing of these vast stretch of deposits under joint venture with APMDC and manufacture of down stream products with foreign equity participation. Indian Rare Earth's Ltd. have already set up such facilities and which are running successfully in Tamilnadu, Kerala and Orissa. This proposed venture in the backward districts of AP will be successful due to proximity of consuming centres, rail and availability of port infrastructure facilities.


Andhra Pradesh is 2nd richest in Bauxite deposits in the country, huge reserves of 750 million tons of metal grade Bauxite have been proved in forest and tribal tracts of Visakhapatnam and East Godavari districts by detail explorations. MECON has prepared feasibility report for establishing alumina plant near the vicinity of Visakhapatnam port. APMDC has already applied for mining leases in 24 areas and 3 leases are under close finalisation by due completion of environmental impact studies, mine plan and under final stages of process for forest clearance. Under the above scenario, opportunity is available for establishing an integrated project -Mining, Manufacturing Alumina and Exports. All bauxite deposits are located in proximity to the fast growing Visakhapatnam port. APMDC offers joint ventures for mining Bauxite who intend to set up Alumina / Aluminium plants. Power being a major component and infrastructure in the manufacture of Alumina / Aluminium, Facilities like allotment of coal mines for captive power generation can be made available for immediate take off. The companies with latest technology and finance can interact with the APMDC and Govt. for starting a viable joint venture in Andhra Pradesh for Alumina / Aluminium industries.


Andhra Pradesh contains 44% of limestone reserves of the country with estimated reserves around 30,400 million tonnes of different grades, produces 15 million tonnes and contributes 15% of the total production of the country. State is one of the largest producer of cement (18-20%) with 18 major and 29 mini cement plants.

Exploitation of Limestone is quite meager, when compared to the vast potential. The State has good potential to start many more cement plants and gives preference for setting up cement and Lime based industries. The State is looking for setting up slag and fly ash based Cement plants near Visakhapatnam Steel Plant and Thermal Plants. The State with growing construction activity has a vast scope to set up cement plants, ready mix cement concrete units. Entrepreneurs, who have a vision to setup such lime based industries, such Projects will be cleared under single window set up by the Government.


Dolomite is found in Khammam, Kurnool, Ananthapur, Warangal and Cuddapah Districts. Visakhapatnam Steel Plant and Southern Magnesium are exploiting metal and SMS grade Dolomite of Khammam and Warangal Districts. Dolomites from other Districts are presently been used as filler in detergents, and other industries. There is a scope to develop new mines and establishment of Dolomite based industries in the State.


Andhra Pradesh is known as Ratnalaseema (i.e. Land of Diamonds) for centuries for the best diamonds occurrences, some of world known diamonds like Kohinoor, Regent etc., are from the womb of the state. Diamond bearing areas are spread over 50000 Sq. km under different environs in Ananthapur, Kurnool, Cuddapah, Krishna, Guntur, Prakasam, Chittoor, Nalgonda, Khammam, Mahabubnagar and Warangal districts of the State. Integrated Geological surveys carried out under National Diamond Project identified Diamondiferrous Kimberlite / Lamproite Pipes, Conglomerates and Gravel. So far 53 Kimberlite / Lamproite pipes were identified and further explorations are continued. Average incidence is about 3 to 4 carats / 100 tons of source material.


Andhra Pradesh is also known for Gold mining during various periods of history, specially during the regime of Vijaynagaram Empire. Number of Gold bearing green stone schist belts occur in Chittoor, Ananthapur, Kurnool, Guntur, Prakasam, Cuddapah, Khammam, Mahabubnagar and Nellore districts of the State, so far 28 such belts were identified extending over lengths of 16 to 185 km with an estimated reserve of 6.9 million tones of Gold ore and average assay of 3 to 5 grams of Gold per tonne of ore. Most of the deposits are associated with Scheelite. The vast terrain of potential Gold bearing fields are yet to be scanned thoroughly due to various reasons of Technology.

Semi Precious/ Abrasive/ Decorative stones

There are number of occurrences of semi-precious and abrasive stones like Amethyst, Green quartz, Corundum (Ruby), Beryl (Emerald), Apatite, Cat's eye, Alex, Agate, Quartz crystals, Moonstone, Sunstone, Garnet, Kyanite, Aquamarine, Tourmaline, Serpentine, etc.,. in Ananthapur, Cuddapah, Kurnool, Prakasam, Nellore, Khammam, Medak, Nalgonda, RangaReddy, MahabubNagar, East & West Godavari, Visakhapatnam, Vizianagaram & Srikakulam Districts. These are being either as an abrasive stone or in faceting industry based on the quality.

Gem & Jewellery

Andhra Pradesh was the richest bazaar for Gem, Jewellery and lapidary in the annals of past history due to close vicinity of vast resources of raw materials like Gold, Diamond, Semi-Precious Stones and more particularly the skilled craftsmen. The antic beauty of Nizam Jewellery is still an envy of the world. Most of the traders from Jaipur , Surat and Combay source their material and designs from Andhra Pradesh. Hyderabad is also known as Pearl Centre of the country . Andhra Pradesh offers abundant opportunity with potential resource of Gold, Diamond, Ruby, Aquamarine, Emerald, Cryso-Berly Cat's Eye, Silliminite Cat's Eye, Alex and other Semi-Precious Stones with cheap skilled master craftsmen have an advantage over other states to establish a Gem & Jewellery Park either in the Hyderabad or in the exclusive export zone in Visakhapatnam. The development of Gem & Jewellery is a thrust area under New Industrial Policy and package of incentives are being offered for setting up such park facility for value addition and export. Prospective entrepreneurs can avail this opportunity.


Andhra Pradesh is the sole producer of Coal in the entire South India, Coal occurs in Gondwana formations of Godavari valley and found over larger tracts of Adilabad, Karimnagar, Khammam and Warangal districts. These vast spreads of Coal formations are partially explored by different Geological agencies and measured reserves of around 10,500 million tones with possible reserves of 30,000 million tonnes. There are many more areas to be explored to prove the reserves in the Godavari Coal belt. M/s Singareni Collieries Company Limited is solely operating the mines under Public sector in the state, producing around 30 million tonnes per annum and catering to the needs of various industries in the whole of South India.

The Government of India has liberalized the Coal Policy allowing private sector to explore and exploit the coal resources. M/s Singareni Collieries Company Limited has identified 6 blocks with 464 million tonnes of coal for Privatisation and offers are being invited for coal mining in the Godavari Coal Belt. However majority of the coal mines falls under the C and D Categories with an average ash content ranging from 24 to 34% rendering non usage in steel and other allied industries. The washer would decrease the ash content by 7 to 8 % down to level around 18 to 26% rendering its usage in such industries.

Andhra Pradesh with vast Coal Potential and infrastructure, invites the Private sector to participate in Coal mining to fill up the demand and supply gap and also to setup coal washery plants in the state.

Oil & Natural Gas

Oil & Natural Gas occurs in an area of 20,000 Sq.KM on-shore and 21,000 Sq.KM off-shore in East and West Godavari and Krishna Districts. Production is under way in number of wells and a few industries like Gas Based Power Plant, Fertilizer Plant etc., have already come up. The present availability of Gas from Krishna, Godavari Basins is of the order of 3 to 4 Million Cu.Mt / day. Good prospects exists for setting up Gas Based Projects.

Copper, Lead & Zinc

Occurrences of Copper, Lead & Zinc are found at number of places in Cuddapah, Guntur, Khammam, Kurnool, Nellore and Prakasam Districts. The established reserves are about 9 Million Tonnes of Copper, Lead & Zinc with 1.35 to 1.60 % Copper, 3 to 9% Lead and 4 to 5% Zinc. The Lead deposits of Guntur District are being exploited by Hindustan Zinc Ltd., a public sector organisation, but there is potential to exploit other deposits with improved technology and investment.

Low Grade Iron Ore

Iron ore occurs in Kurnool, Ananthapur, Chittoor, Khammam, Warangal, Karimnagar, Adilabad and Prakasam districts. The total estimated reserves are around 265 Million Tonnes of various grades of Iron ore. High grade Hematite Iron ore from Ananthapur and Kurnool is being exploited and catering the needs of Sponge & Pig Iron Plants in the State.

The low grade Magnetite Iron ore deposits with 22 to 35% Fe are found over a length of 52 KM near the Port in Ongole- Prakasam district , which were thoroughly explored and estimated a reserve of 165 million tonnes. Feasibility report was prepared by M/s MECON for establishing a sponge Iron Plant. These vast Iron ore deposits are being offered under Joint Venture with M/s APMDC for Mining, Benefaction, Export and Value addition.


The best crysotile variety of Asbestos is found near Pulivendla and Brahmanapalli in Cuddapah District. There are number of Asbestos deposits in Cuddapah, Kurnool and MahabubNagar Districts. The present level of production is around 2000 tonnes per annum.

Apart from the existing industry, there is good scope for promoting Asbestos based industries, with suitable environment safe guards, to manufacture break linings, clutch facings, automobile gaskets, asbestos fabrics and ropes.


Andhra Pradesh is one of the few States in India, producing Manganese ore. There are number of deposits in Vizianagaram, Srikakulam, Adilabad and Prakasam Districts. The estimated reserves are about 7.5 Million Tonnes of low grade manganese with 30 to 40% Mn in the state. The Manganese ore can be used for the manufacture of Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide, Manganese Chloride, and Batteries in addition to exports.


Vermiculite is found in association with the Mica in Nellore and Visakhapatnam districts. The production is not consumerate with the potentiality in the areas. Vermiculite is mostly used in acoustic purposes after exfoliation and also exported.


Low grade Graphite with less then 40% Fixed carbon is found in Khondalite suite of rocks in Khammam, West Godavari, East Godavari, Visakhapatnam, Vijayanagaram & Srikakulam districts of the state. The graphite is used in manufacture of electrodes, graphite crucibles and paints.

Tungsten Ore

Tungsten ore is occurring over a length of about 1 Km in Tapsikonda and Burugubanda in East and West Godavari districts. M/s NMDC has explored the area in association with BRGM and proved reserve of about 11 million tonnes of ore with 0.03 to 0. 05 % of W2O3 in association with Graphite. Tungsten is very much useful in super alloys and electronics.

Steatite/Talc/Soap stone

Best grade Steatite/Talc/Soap stone occurs at various places in Kurnool, Ananthapur, Cuddapah, and low grade occurs in Chittoor and Khammam Districts. Presently Steatite is being mined and supplied to various Cosmetic, Soap, Ceramic and as a filler in pesticide and insecticide industry. Presently, there are no Steatite based Cosmetic and Soap manufacturing industry in the State.


Semi- Transparent & Good grade Calcite with less than 2% of Sio2 occur in Ananthapur, Cuddapah, Khammam & Visakhapatnam districts. There are being used in metallurgy, welding flux, as filler in rubber and Paint Industry. There is a vast scope to develop and export the calcite from the state.


Only Apatite deposit in the entire Southern India ( P2O5 > 35%) occurs near Kasipatnam at Seetharamapuram- Visakhapatnam district, which is being exploited under joint venture with M/s APMDC.


Andhra Pradesh has plenty of Minerals required for Ceramic industry and is the largest source for Various Clays, Feldspar, Quartz, Silica Sand, Pyrophillite, Nepheline syenite Rare Earths (Titanites/Zirconite). Conventional Ceramic Industry in Andhra Pradesh provides a strong base for development of Advance Ceramics with sophisticated processing and technology transfer. The State invite offers for development of Advanced ceramics like Electro and Mechano Ceramics.


Workable deposits of Fire Clay, Ball Clay, China Clay and Ordinary Clay occurs in Adilabad, Ananthapur, Cuddapah, East and West Godavari, MahabubNagar, Kurnool, Nalgonda, Guntur, Nellore, Prakasam, Srikakulam, Visakhapatnam and Vizianagaram Districts. The total estimated reserves of Clays to be around 21 Million Tonnes.

The Fire Clays occurring in Adlilabad and East Godavari Districts are being used in sanitary ware and stone ware industries. China Clay and Ball Clay occurring in Ananthapur, Kurnool, Cuddapah, Nellore, Nalgonda, West Godavari and Guntur Districts are being used in different Ceramic, Refractory & Filler Industries. Ordinary clay is being used in manufacture of Sewerage pipes & Mangalore Tiles.

Clays finds usage in many industries like Ceramic, Refractory, Paper, Textiles, Electrical, Cement, Petroleum, Foundries etc.

Fuller's Earth

Pocket deposits of Fuller's Earth occur at number of places around Vikarabad- Ranga Reddy district, which is being used in Oil well drilling, as a bleaching Earth in the edible Oil refining and exported to Middle east countries.


Red & Yellow Ochre extensively occur at number of places in Kurnool, Ananthapur, Cuddapah, Visakhapatnam & West Godavari districts. They are being used in Paint & Polishing industry.


Granular, Glassy, Semi-glassy and Massive Quartz/Quratzites deposits occur extensively in MahabubNagar, Ranga Reddy, Nalgonda, Medak, Nizamabad, Khammam, Kurnool, Ananthapur, Chitoor, Nellore, Prakasam, Guntur, West Godavari, Visakhapatnam & Vijayanagaram districts in the State. Quartz finds usage in Ferro-Alloys, Ceramic and Glass Industries. Presently Quartz is being mined from Ranga Reddy, MahabubNagar, Medak, Kurnool & Nellore districts and exported from Madras port to various countries.

The SiO2 ranges from 99.5 to 99.90%, Fe2O3 0.02 to 0. 08% with minute Percentages of Al203. Depending on the quality of the mineral, scope exists for setting up industrial units for the manufacture of Glass, Silicon Carbide, Fibreglass, Silica Gel, Quartz Wool, Ceramic Glass, Silicon Wafers and Refractories. Vast scope exists for exploitation, development & export of the Quartz/ Quartzite from the state.

Silica sand

Silica sand Occurs all along the East Coast from Guntur to Nellore districts. In addition, there are extensive Quartzites containing silica sand deposits around Orvakal in Kurnool district. The silica sand from these areas are used as Moulding sand, Sodium silicate, ceramics, refectories, glass etc., There is a vast scope to exploit and develop the deposits.

Feldspar/ Nephilene Syenite

Potash & Sodic Feldspar occur at number of places as pegmatites in Ranga reddy, MahabubNagar, Khammam, Nalgonda, Nellore, Cuddapah, Ananthapur & West Godavari districts. Nephilene Syenites occurs in Khammam and Prakasam districts.The percentage of K2O+ N2O will be around 12 to 15% in most of the areas. They are being used in Ceramics & Refractories and also a part of being exported. There is a vast scope to develop value-added products within the state.


Pyrophyllite occurs in Cuddapah and Ananthapur districts, which is being used in Refractories. There are prospects for exploitation and utility around the mineral occurrences.

White shale

Extensive deposits of White shale occurs in Kurnool, Cuddapah & Ananthapur districts in Cuddapah and Kurnool basins, which are being exploited and used as filler in number of industries like Pesticides, Insecticides etc.


Andhra Pradesh is one of the largest producer of granites in the country, 17 out of 23 districts have several occurrences of different varieties of granites. Jet black, Black Galaxy, Blue and White coloured are exclusive varieties in the international market. The estimated reserves of commercial granites are around 251 million Cubic metres in the state. There are a number of unexplored areas in the state, which contain workable and marketable deposits, Central and state Geological agencies have started exploration to identify new varieties and areas. Vast scope exists for development of granite industry in the state. The Govt. of Andhra Pradesh have the most progressive policy for granites in the country.

World's rare and exclusive variety of black Galaxy Granite occur in Chimakurthy- Prakasam district, M/s Andhra Pradesh Mineral Development Corporation invites Private sector for establishing a Granite Park primarily basing on world famous Black Galaxy in Prakasam/ Nellore districts close to the port.


There are vast deposits of Slate / Phyllite in Prakasam, Guntur and Nalgonda Districts. Some of the varieties are already been exported from the State to Australia, New Zealand and European Market.


Different varieties of Marbles occur in Khammam, Cuddapah, Guntur and Nellore Districts. There is a scope to open up new areas in the above districts and establishment of cutting and polishing industry.

Limestone Slabs

Different colours of Limestone Slabs are extensively found in Ranga Reddy, Nalgonda, Guntur, Ananthapur, Cuddapah, Kurnool & MahabubNagar districts. They are being exploited locally and exported to different parts of the country and other countries for flooring.

Mineral Resources of Andhra Pradesh Vis-à-vis India


S.No Mineral Andhra Pradesh
(In Million Tonnes)
(In Million Tonnes)
% of AP Reserves
2.5 Lakh Tones
1071 Tones
15344 Tones
2000 Tones
170( Not Totally Estimated )
194990 Carats
60000 tones
Crude Oil-764.63 Mil.TonsN.Gas-706.69 Cu.M
312454 Tones


July 11, 2009

Timeline (Chronology): Indian National Movement

Timeline (Chronology): Indian National Movement


First War of Indian Independence


British crown takes over the Indian Government, End of East India Company Rule


Birth of Rabindra Nath Tagore


Formation of Indian National Congress


Partition of Bengal announced which came in force from October 16, 1906

1906, Dec 31

Muslim League founded at Decca

1908, April 30

Khudiram Bose executed

1908, July 22

Tilak sentenced to six years on charges of sedition

1909, May 21

Minto-Morley Reforms of Indian Councils Act, 1909


The coronation or Delhi Durbar held at Delhi in which the Partition of Bengal is cancelled


Delhi becomes the new capital of India

1912, Dec 23

Bomb thrown on Lord Hardinge on his state entry into Delhi

1914, Nov 1

Ghadar Party formed at San Francisco

1914, June 16

Bal Gangadhar Tilak released from jail

1914, Aug 4

Outbreak of First World War

1914, Sept 29

Komagatamaur ship reaches Budge (Calcutta Port)

1915, Jan 9

Mahatma Gandhi arrives in India

1915, Feb 19

Death of Gopal Krishan Gokhle

1916, April 28

B.G. Tilak founds Indian Home Rule League with it headquarters at Poona

1916, Sept 25

Another Home Rule League started by Annie Besant

1917, April

Mahatma Gandhi launches the Champaran campaign in Bihar to focus attention on the grievances of Indigo farmers

1917, Aug 20

The Secretary of State for India, Montague, declares that the goal of the British government in India is the introduction of Responsible Government


Beginning of trade union movement in India

1918, April

Rowlatt (Sedition) Committee submits its reports. Rowlatt Bill introduced on Feb 16, 1919

1919, April 13

Jalianwala Bagh Massacre

1919, Dec 5

The House of Commons passes the Montague Chelmsford Reforms or the Government of India Act, 1919. The new reforms under this Act come into force in 1921


First meeting of the All Indian Trade Union Congress (under Narain Malhar Joshi)

1920, Dec

The Indian National Congress (INC) adopts the Non-Cooperation Resolution


Non-Cooperation Movement, suspended on Feb 12, 1922 after the violent incidents at Chauri Chaura on Feb 5, 1922

1922, Aug

Moplah rebellion on the Malabar coast

1923, Jan 1

Swarajist Party formed by Motilal Nehru and others


The Communist Party of India starts its activities at Kanpur

1925, Aug

Kakori Train Conspiracy Case

1927, Nov 8

The British Prime Minister announces the appointment of the Simon Commission to suggest future constitutional reforms in India, Simon Commission arrives in Bombay on Feb 3, 1928 and all-India hartal, Lala Lajpat Rai assaulted by Police in Lahore


Nehru Report recommends principles for the new Constitution of India. All Parties conference considers the Nehru Report, Aug 28-31, 1928

1928, Nov 17

Death of Lala Lajpat Rai


Sarda Act passed prohibiting marriage of girls below 14 and boys below 18 years of age with effect from 1930

1929, March 9

All-Parties Muslim Conference formulates the "Fourteen Points" under the leadership of Jinnah

1929, April 8

Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt throw bomb in the Central Legislative Assembly

1929, Oct 31

Lord Irwin's announcement that the goal of British policy in India was the grant of the Dominion status

1929, Dec 31

The Lahore session of the INC adopts the goal of complete independence- Poorna Swaraj for India, Jawaharlal Nehru hoists the tricolour of Indian Independence on the banks of the Ravi at Lahore

1930, Jan 26

First Independence Day observed

1930, Feb 14

The Working Committee of the INC meets at Sabarmati and passes the Civil Disobedience resolution

1930, March 12

Mahatma Gandhi launches the Civil Disobedience movement with his epic Dandi March (March 12 to April 6), First Phase of Civil Disobedience Movement: March 12, 1930 to March 5, 1931

1930, Nov 30

First Round Table Conference begins in London to consider the report of the Simon Commission

1931, March 5

Gandhi-Irwin pact signed, Civil Disobedience movement suspended

1931, March 23

Bhagat Singh, Sukh Dev and Rajguru executed

1931, Sept 7

Second Round Table Conference

1931, Dec 28

Mahatma Gandhi returns from London after the deadlock in Second Round Table Conference. Launches Civil Disobedience Movement. Indian National Congress (INC) declared illegal

1932, Jan 4

Mahatma Gandhi arrested and imprisoned without trial

1932, Aug 16

British Prime Minister Ramsay Macdonald announces the infamous "Communal Award"

1932, Sept 20

Mahatma Gandhi begins his epic "Fast unto Death" in jail against the Communal Award and ends the fast on Sept 26 after the Poona Pact

1932, Nov 17

The Third Round Table Conference begins in London (Nov 17 to Dec 24)

1933, May 9

Mahatma Gandhi released from prison as he begins fast for self-purification. INC suspends Civil Disobedience Movement but authorises Satyagraha by individuals


Mahatma Gandhi withdraws from active politics and devotes himself to "Constructive Programmes" (1934-39)

1935, Aug 4

The Government of India Act, 1935 passed


Elections held in India under the Act of 1935 (Feb 1937). The INC contests election and forms ministries in several provinces (July 1937)

1938, Feb 19-20

Haripura session of Indian National Congress (INC). Subhash Chandra Bose elected Congress president

1939, March 10-12

Tripuri session of the INC

1939, April

Subhash Chandra Bose resigns as the president of the INC

1939, Sept 3

Second World War (September 1). Great Britain declares war on Germany; the Viceroy declares that India too is at war

1939, Oct 27 - Nov 5

The Congress ministries in the provinces resign in protest against the war policy of the British government

1939, Dec 22

The Muslim League observes the resignation of the Congress ministries as "Deliverance Day"

1940, March

Lahore session of the Muslim League passes the Pakistan Resolution

1940, Aug 10

Viceroy Linlithgow announces August Offer

1940, Aug 18-22

Congress Working Committee rejects the "August Offer"

1940, Oct 17

Congress launches Individual Satyagraha Movement

1941, Jan 17

Subhash Chandra Bose escapes from India; arrives in Berlin (March 28)

1942, March 11

Churchill announces the Cripps Mission

1942, Aug 7-8

The Indian National Congress (INC) meets in Bombay; adopts "Quit India" resolution

1942, Aug 9

Mahatma Gandhi and other Congress leaders arrested

1942, Aug 11

Quit India movement begins; the Great August Uprising

1942, Sept 1

Subhash Chandra Bose establish the Indian National Army "Azad Hind Fauz"

1943, Oct 21

Subhash Chandra Bose proclaims the formation of the Provincial Government of Free India

1943, Dec

Karachi session of the Muslim League adopts the slogan "Divide and Quit"

1944, Jan 25

Wavell calls Simla Conference in a bid to form the Executive Council of Indian political leaders

1946, Feb 18

Mutiny of the Indian naval ratings in Bombay

1946, March 15

British Prime Minister Attlee announces Cabinet Mission to propose new solution to the Indian deadlock; Cabinet Mission arrives in New Delhi (March 14); issues proposal (May 16)

1946, July 6

Jawaharlal Nehru takes over as Congress president

1946, Aug 6

Wavell invites Nehru to form an interim government; Interim Government takes office (Sept 2)

1946, Dec 9

First session of Constituent Assembly of India starts. Muslim League boycotts it

1947, Feb 20

British Prime Minister Attlee declares that the British government would leave India not later than June, 1948

1947, March 24

Lord Mountbatten, the last British Viceroy and Governor-General of India sworn in (March 24, 1947 to June 21, 1948)

1947, June 3

Mountbatten Plan for the partition of India and the announcement (June 4) that transfer of power will take place on August 15

1947, Aug 15

India becomes independent.