August 20, 2014

Gamma Rays- Formation, Properties, Their difference with X Rays and Applications - Explained

Discovered by - Paul Villard, a French physicist,  is credited with discovering gamma rays. He had discovered they were emitted from radioactive substances and were not affected by electric or magnetic fields.Named as “Gamma rays” three years later by Ernest Rutherford.
-Gamma Rays - are electromagnetic rays like X rays and travel with speed of light. Electromagnetic radiation can be described in terms of a stream of photons, which are mass less particles each travelling in a wave-like pattern and moving at the speed of light. Each photon contains a certain amount (or bundle) of energy, and all electromagnetic radiation consists of these photons.
 -Gamma-ray photons have the highest energy in the EMR spectrum and their waves have the shortest wavelength. Their high frequency makes them more penetrating compared to X Rays.


August 17, 2014

X-Rays- Formation, Properties & Applications Explained

In 1895, Wilhelm Roentgen discovered X-rays. This accidental discovery took place when he was studying cathode rays using an evacuated glass tube. X-Rays are electromagnetic radiations having a wavelength between 10A to 0.01A. In Free Space they travel in a straight line with a velocity of 3 ×10 (power) 8 meters per second and they are Invisible to human Eye.

Formation: When cathode rays strike against a metal of high atomic weight, a new form of radiation called X-rays, are produced. X-rays are generated when a stream of electrons travelling from tungsten filament (cathode) is suddenly stopped by its impact on anodic tungsten target .


August 15, 2014

Liver - Anatomy, Functions, Diseases & Tests Explained

Why is liver called a Gland?
Gland is a organ which can secrete chemicals or hormones. In this case Liver produces bile, a substance needed to digest fats. Bile’s salts break up fat into smaller pieces so it can be absorbed more easily in the small intestine.
The liver is the largest glandular organ in the body. Liver is the only organ in the body that can regenerate itself in human body.
The liver is located in the upper right-hand portion of the abdominal cavity, beneath the diaphragm, and on top of the stomach, right kidney, and intestines. Shaped like a cone, the liver is a dark reddish-brown organ that weighs about 3 pounds ( or 1.5 kgs average)
The liver consists of four lobes, they are - the left, right, caudate, and quadrate lobes.
i) The left and right lobes are the largest lobes and are separated by the falciform ligament. ii) The right lobe is about 5 to 6 times larger than the tapered left lobe.
iii) The small caudate lobe extends from the posterior side of the right lobe and wraps around the inferior vena cava.
iv) The small quadrate lobe is inferior to the caudate lobe and extends from the posterior side of the right lobe and wraps around the gallbladder.


August 13, 2014

INS Vikramaditya - some amazing facts to be known

INS Vikramaditya - Brave as the Sun
Type: Aircraft Carrier to serve India for 40 years
Origin: Russia, commissioned in 1987
Original Name: Admiral Gorshkov
Capacity: 45,000-tonne aircraft carrier.
  • The carrier was purchased by India on January 20, 2004 after years of negotiations at a final price of $ 2.35 Billion in 2010.
  • The 284 metre-long and 60-metre-high INS Vikramaditya has a displacement of 45,000 tons, and an endurance of 13,500 nautical miles (25,000 km) at a cruising speed of 18 knots.
  • When delivered, the INS Vikramaditya will be a 90-per cent new ship and will remain in service for 40 years.
  • The futuristic missile defence system that was supposed to be fitted on the Vikramaditya, called the Long Range Surface to Air Missile (LR-SAM).
  • A fleet of MiG-29K naval fighters designated for INS Vikramaditya have already arrived. The on-board arrester wire of the carrier has been designed to support the MiGs and indigenous naval version of the Light Combat Aircraft.
What is LR-SAM Technology being jointly developed by India and Israel?


August 12, 2014

Fascism in Italy A.D.1922 - A.D.1945

Meaning of Fascism
The term '“Fascism" is derived from the Latin word 'Fasces' means a bundle or group. Mussolini of Italy, who is associated with Fascism, organized in the beginning groups of young persons or gangs called the ‘fasces', to create terror among the people who were considered enemies of the nation.
Fascism rests on four pillars of charismatic leadership, single party rule under a dictator, terror and economic control.
Mussolini believed in the efficacy of these slogans and their accompanying action : “Believe, Obey, Fight” and "The More Force, The More Honour*.

Reasons for the emergence of Fascism
The prevailing economic, social and political conditions were very favourable to the rise of fascism in Italy.
Economic crisis
Italy faced with a great economic crisis on account of the huge expenditure incurred on the war. The national debt increased manifold. There was social unrest and economic distress in the country, the prices of essential goods shot up. Cost of living rose very high. Socialism gathered new strength.
There was great dismay and frustration after the Treaty of Paris. Although a victor and constitute of the Allies, Italy did not gain substantially from the spoils of war.
Disruptive activities of the socialists
On account of the revolutionary ideas of the socialist, unrest had spread in the country.
Need for a charismatic leader
The situation demanded a bold leadership and the same was supplied by the fascist leader Mussolini.

Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini
Mussolini, Benito (1883 -1945)


August 9, 2014

Important Diagnostic Instruments in Medicine - for General Awareness

Electro Cardiography (ECG): Detects changes in ‘electrical potentials' generated by contraction of heart muscles, which are recorded by placing two special electrodes over particular point of the body. It helps in diagnosis of heart diseases, including myocardial infarction (or coronary thrombosis), myocardial ischemia, cardiac arrhythmia.

Electro Encephalograph (EEG): Records the electrical activity of the brain on suitable paper, with the help of two special electrodes placed on the scalp. It helps in diagnosis of epilepsy, intracranial tumours (or brain tumours).

Electromyography (EMG): Involves graphic recording of muscle ‘action potentials’, which helps in diagnosis of various neuromuscular or muscular diseases and disorders.



HUMAN BRAIN - Structure, Functions & Diseases Explained

The human brain consists of two parts, namely, the brain lodged in the brain case (skull) and the spinal cord lodged in the vertebral column.

General Facts about Human Brain
  • The human brain has two sides. The right side and the left side. The right side controls the left half of the body and the left side controls the right half of the body.
  • The Skull protects the brain its is composed of 22 Bones.
  • The weight of the average human brain triples between birth and adulthood. The final weight of the brain in an adult male is about 1.4 kg and 1.3 kg in the case of a woman, which averages about 3 per cent of body weight of a normal person.
  • The brain uses about 20 per cent of the oxygen a man breathes, 20 per cent of calories a man takes in and about 15 per cent of body blood.


August 8, 2014


The reasons for the rise of communal-ism and the formation of the Muslim League were many.

After the Revolt of 1857, the British followed the well-proven policy of “divide and rule”. Their purpose was to keep themselves in power by causing disagreements within various sections who might otherwise unite against the rulers. On the one hand, they appeased the Princes and the Zamindars, and on the other, they sowed the seeds of disunity between the Hindus and the Muslims. For over three decades after the Revolt, the Muslims were treated with suspicion by the British. They held them guilty of the Revolt of 1857. In fact, the Muslims were suppressed systematically. In the army their recruitment was limited. Even civilian offices were denied to them. Gradually, the entire scene began to change. As the Congress movement gained force, Government’s hatred towards the Hindus also grew. The Government wished to keep Muslims aloof from the Congress. Sir Syed Ahmad Khan and Theodore Beck, the first Principal of the Mohammedan College at Aligarh, tried to convince the Muslims that “the Congress was Hindu Organisation which should be avoided at all cost”. Henceforth more and more Muslim young men looked to the British for the protection of their interests against the Hindu majority. Partition of Bengal was a clear example of an application of the policy of divide and rule.  Many Muslims disliked the loyalist policies pursued by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan. Badruddin Tyabji presided over the Congress Session at Chennai in 1887.


August 6, 2014

2011 Census Cheat Sheet in Telugu Medium

2011 India Census Cheat Sheet for UPSC Civil Service Exams, APPSC & TPSC General Studies Paper


Roman Empire and its Fall - Medieval Europe

The Medieval Europe: The period from 600 AD on wards till 1500 AD is known as the Medieval age, in European history. It did not begin exactly at the same time in all the countries of Europe. Historians divided the medieval period into two parts. From the beginning of the fall of Roman empire till 1000 AD is called the Early Medieval Age and from 1000 AD to 1500 AD the Later Medieval Age. The beginning of the medieval age is marked by the fall of the Roman empire. The early medieval period has been termed as the “Dark Age”, because chaos and degeneration became prevalent everywhere. The central authority of the government became weaker and exploitation of the common people increased. The medieval age saw the emergence of a new religion Islam, which became internationally important.
On the political front, Medieval Europe saw the rise of the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantine Empire with its capital at Constantinople. This empire held sway over whole of East Europe till about 1400AD. The Romans proved to be great warriors and conquerors. It was because of their ability and wisdom that strong rulers evinced. After the fall of the Roman Empire in about 800A.D, Emperor Charlemagne established his power over a vast area-comprising modern France, Germany and a part of Italy. This empire lasted till his death and by about 1000 A.D another empire called the Holy Roman Empire was established. Thus towards the end of 14th century, Europe's political map had undergone many changes with many rulers holding power in different parts of Europe at different times. 

Rome was not built in a day. Similarly the decline of the Roman empire was not the work of a sudden or abrupt event but a long-drawn-out process spreading over nearly three centuries. The death of Marcus Aurelius in AD 180 was a turning point in the history of the Roman Empire. The safety, security and integrity of the empire was threatened from within and without. In fact the steady decline of the empire started from the latter half of the second century. Before their final decline in A.D.476 there were many successful emperors like Diocletian (A. D . 2 84-3 0 5) Constantine I the Great (A.D. 306-337) and Theodosius I the Great (A.D.378-395).

Causes for the down fall of the Roman Empire
The decline of the mighty Roman empire of the Caesars was wrought by time and nature, Hurricanes and earthquakes. Fires and inundations reduced the works of ages into dust.
The influx of wealth into the country brought in its wake moral degradation. The Romans lost all their old virtues of discipline and duty to the state.
The growth of the Christian church formed “a state within a state”. In policy and action, the church stood against the empire.
The political mechanism of Rome with her constitution was quite unsuitable to an empire. A corrupt and expensive bureaucracy further worsened the situation. Rome became a big empire and territorially it became vast and impossible to control it. The Romans did not treat their colonial people well. The administration was weak and relaxed. Frequent wars also contributed to her decline.