July 9, 2013

Causes for rise of Radical Nationalists in India

  • The radical nationalists were the leaders of a sturdy nationalist movement.
  • believed that for any success, boldness was required.
  • stood for complete Swaraj.
Methods: encouraged radical methods in politics, such as boycott of British goods, government services and titles. They broadened the social base of the movement.

Important Leaders of Radical Nationalists:  Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal and Lajpat Rai attempted to bring into the Congress the mass of the population,i.e., the workers, peasants and youths.

What are the causes of the rise of radical nationalism in India?
The causes for rise of radical nationalism is multi-facet which are organised as below:
The Famine and Plague: The severe drought in 1896-97 affected crores of people and casued nearly 45 lakh deaths. The government didnt provide poper relief measures like money, food and clothing. Plague followed after famine. The soldiers who were deputed to take infected people to isolation camps behaved like gang of invaders, insulting women and throwing household goods on the streets. This angered the people, in this incident Chapekar brothes killed the Plague Commissioner, Mr. Rand. Tilak, through his writings, explained to the peasants their right to relief under the Famine Relief Code. He was tried for having written explosive articles in the 'Kesari' and sentenced to eighteen months' imprisonment which was greatly resented by the people throughout the country.
Worsening of the Economic Conditions:
  •  Long Drought and famines made peasants poor
  • Indian traders and manufacturers had lost all confidence in the government of the country.
  • India's gold reserves were being transferred to London. India was thus starved of its own resources.
ill-treatment of Indians in South Africa: Indians in south africa were subject to racial discrimination through
  • denial of right to vote
  • enter the buses or railway coaches reserved for the Whites
  • unfair taxation and
  • Registration Act required them to carry their Identity Cards.
 International Events:
  • In South Africa, the Boers fought with amazing courage for three years (1899-1902) against the mighty British empire. In Ireland people were waging a full-scale Home Rule agitation.
  •  Revolutionary movements were going on in China, Egypt, Russia, Turkey and Iran.
  • Italy's defeat in Ethiopia in 1896 and Japan's victory over Russia (1905) shattered the myth of European superiority. Japan's victory "heralded the dawn of a new era for the whole of Asia.
  • Nationalists in India drew inspiration and courage from such events.
Repressive Policy of Lord Curzon:
  • He roused a storm of opposition in the country by the Calcutta Corporation Act of 1899 which reduced the elected members of the Corporation to half.
  • The Universities Act of 1904 was to reduce their autonomy and turn them into departments of government.
  • The Sedition Act and the Official Secrets Act curtailed the liberties of all sections of the society.
Partition of Bengal:  Lord Curzon's most unpopular measure was the Partition of Bengal, announced in 1903 and earned out in 1905 on grounds of administrative convenience.
  • But the real object was not to relieve Bengal administration, but to contain and crush the rising tide of Bengali nationalism.
  • Under the leadership of A. Rasul and Bipin Chandra Pal, the Bengalis carried on a fierce agitation against the partition.
  •  Every town and village rang with the slogan of"Bande Mataram" which meant "patriotism, unity and determination to free the Motherland".
  • The partition led directly to the growth of radicalism in Indian politics. Radical nationalists came to believe that it was impossible to gain any concession by petitions and prayers. 


No comments: