This period is marked by the entry of the Aryans, who were originally inhabitants of Central Asia
around the Caspian Sea and probably came through the Hindukush Mountains. The period in
which they existed was between 1500-600 BC.
The Main Features of the Aryans were:
i) They were admirers of nature and worshipped the Sun, Fire and Water.
ii) Indra was an important deity for the Aryans.
iii)Metal iron was used for the first time during this period in 1000 BC.
The following religious books were written during this period
i) Vedas: These were their most sacred books.
(These are also the oldest known books of Indus Valley Civilization). They were four in
number, viz. :
a) Rig Veda – The oldest, and it contained prayers of God, Vayu, Varun, Indra and Agni.
b) Sam Veda – It dealt with music.
c) Yajur Veda – It dealt with formulae, sacrifices and rituals.
d) Atharva Veda – It dealt with medicines.
ii) The Upanishads: They are the foundation stones of Indian Philosophy and are 108 in number.