October 16, 2013

Governor Generals of Biritsh India & Important Events - for UPSC, APPSC Material, IBPS & Bank PO General Awareness Material

Robert Clive (1757-60 & 1765-67):-
1. Governor of Bengal during this period.
2. Started dual Government in India in 1765.
3. He was a British officer who established the military and political supremacy of the East India Company in Bengal.
4. The foundations of the British empire in India were, it is said, laid by Robert Clive, known to his admirers as the "conqueror of India".
5. Clive defeated the Nawab of Bengal Shiraj-ud-daula in the famous Battle of Plassey in 1757.
6. Clive first arrived in India in 1743 as a civil servant of the East India Company; he later transferred to the military service of the Company and returned to England in 1753.
7. On 22 November 1774 Clive committed suicide, aged forty-nine, at his Berkeley Square home in London.

Vanisttart (1760-65)1. The Famous Battle of Buxar was fought on 23 October 1764 between the forces under the command of the British East India Company led by Hector Munro and the combined Muslim army ofMir Qasim, the Nawab of Bengal; Shuja-ud-Daula the Nawab of Awadh and the Mughal King Shah Alam II. During his Governorship.

Warren Hastings (1772-74)
1. Abolished Dual Government started by Robert Clive in 1765.
2. Introduced quintessential settlement of land revenue in 1772.
3. Made appointments of Collectors and other revenue officials.
4. Codified Hindu and Muslim Laws.
5. Trial of Nand Kumar and his Judicial murder in 1775.
6. Foundation of Asiatic Society of Bengal with the help of William Jones in 1784.
7. After his return to England in 1785, Impeachment proceeding were initiated against him in the house of Lord.
8. The first Governor-General of Bengal was Warren Hastings.
9. Started Diwani and Faujdari Adalats at the District level.
10. Rohila War in 1774, First Anglo-Maratha War (1776-82) and Second Anglo-Maratha War from 1780-84.

Lord Cornwallis (1786-93)
1. First Person to codify Laws in 1793. The code separated the revenue administration from the administration of Justice. Created the post of District Judge.
2. Introduced the Permanent settlement in 1793.
3. Cornwallis called “Father of Civil Service in India”.
4. He also led the British forces in the third Anglo-Mysore war and defeated the Great Tipu Sultan, ruler of Mysore.
5. In 1793, He returned to England to receive the title of the Marques. And was granted seat in the Privy Council and died in 1805.

Lord Wellesley (1793-1798) 
1. Described himself as “Bengal Tiger
2. Introduced the system of Subsidiary Alliance.
3. Madras Presidency was formed during his period.
4. The States that signed the alliance were the first Hyderabad in 1798 and then Mysore, Tanjore, Awahd, Peshwa, Bhonsle, Sindhia, Jaipur, Jodhpur, Bundi, Bharatpur.
5. Signed the Treaty of Bassien and fought Second Anglo- Maratha war.
6. Died in 1842.

Lord Minto-I (1807-1813 )
1. Signed Treaty of Amritsar in 1809 between Ranjit Singh and the English.

Lord Hastings (1813-1823)
1. Introduction of Ryotwari settlement in Madras Presidency by Governor Thomas Munro in 1820.
2. Adopted the Policy of intervention and War.
3. Mahalwari (Village Community) system of Land Revenue was made in North West Province by James Thomson.

Lord William Bentick (1828-1835)
1. First Governor General of India by Government of India Act 1833.
2. Known as the “Benevolent Governor General”.
3. Most Liberal and Enlightened Governor General of India and regarded as the “Father of Modern Western Education in India”.
4. Banned practiced of Sati in 1829. And banned female infanticide.
5. Created the province of Agra in 1834.
6. He made the English the court Language in higher court but Persian continued in Lower court.
7. Abolished Court of Appeals and Circuit set up by the Cornwallis. 
8. Sir Charles Metcalfe (1835-36) called Liberator of Press.

Lord Dalhousie (1849-1856) 
1. Lord Dalhousie introduced the Policy of Doctrine of Lapse captured Satara in 1848, Jaitpur and Sambhalpur in 1849. Baghat in 1850, Udaipur in 1852, Jhansi in 1853, and Nagpur in 1854.
2. Introduced Wood’s Dispatch known as Magna Carta of English Education in India prepared by Charles Wood. It suggested a scheme of education from Primary to University level.
3. He laid the first Railway Line in 1853 from Bombay to Thane and second from Calcutta to Raniganj.
4. Gave a great impetus to Post and Telegraph. Telegraph lines were first laid from Calcutta to Agra.
5. Hindu Marriage Act passed in 1856.
6. A Post office Act was passed in 1854. Postage stamp were issued for the first time.
7. He was the youngest Governor General of India. He assumed charge at age of 36.
8. An Engineering Collage at Roorkee was established.
9. A separate Public Works Department was setup for the first time, Started work on Grand Trunk Road and developed the Harbours at Karachi, Bombay, and Calcutta.

Lord Canning (1856-62) 
1. He was the first last Governor General of India and First Viceroy of India.
2. Revolt of 1857.
3. Queen Victoria’s Proclamation and passing the Indian council act of 1858.
4. Doctrine of Lapse which was started by Lord Dalhousie was withdrawn in 1859.
5. Foundation of the Universities in Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras in 1857.
6. Indigo Revolt in Bengal in 1859-60.
7. Bahadur Shah was sent to Rangoon.
8. IPC and Cr.PC was enacted.
9. Income Tax was introduced for the first time in 1858.
10. Indian High Court act 1861 was enacted.

Sir John Lawrence (1864-69)
1. Telegraphic communication was opened with Europe.
2. High Courts were established at Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras in 1865.
3. Expanded Canals and Railways works.
4. Bhutan War (1865).
5. Created the Indian Forests Department and modernised the native Judicial System.

Lord Mayo (1869-72)
1. Introduced Financial decentralization in India, Established Mayo collage at Ajmer for the Princes.
2. Organised the Statistical Survey of India.
3. Established the Department of Agriculture and Commerce.
4. He was the only Viceroy to be murdered in office by a convict in Andaman’s in 1872, Introduction of State Railways.

Lord Lytton (1876-1880) 
1. Most infamous Governor General , Perused free trade and abolished duties on 29 British manufactured goods which accelerated drain of wealth of India.
2. Arranged the Grand Darbar in Delhi in 1877 when the country was suffering from a severe famine.
3. Passed the Royal Title Act (1876) and Queen Victoria was declared as the “Kaisar-i-Hind”.
4. Lowered the Maximum limits from 21 to 19 for civil services.

Lord Ripon (1880-84)
1. Vernacular Press Act was repealed in 1882.
2. The first Factory Act 1881 to improve the Labour Condition.
3. Resolution of Local Self Government in 1882.
4. Appointed Hunter Commission for Education Reforms in 1882.
5. The Illbert bill controversy erupted during his time in 1883.
6. Regular Census in 1881.
7. Lord Dufferin (1884-88), Foundation of INC.

Lord Curzon (1899-1905)
1. Appointed a Police Commission under Andrew Frazer in 1902.
2. Set up Universities Commission in 1902 under Sir Thomas Releigh and Indian Universities Act of 1904 was Passed.
3. Setup Department of Commerce and Industry.
4. Partition of Bengal.

Lord Hardinge (1910-16)
1. Coronation Durbar in 1911 at Delhi in honour of George V.
2. Separate State of Bihar and Orissa in 1911.
3. He shifted the Delhi to capital in 1911 from Calcutta.
4. In 1916, Saddler Committee on Universities appointed.
5. Banaras Hindu Universities was founded in 1916 by Madan Mohan Malviya.
6. Tilak founded the Home Rule league.

Lord Chelmsford (1916-21)
1. He laid the foundation of Woman’s University at Poona.
2. Hunter Commission was appointed to inquire into Punjab wrongs.
3. Home Rule League was formed by Annie Besant.
4. Aligarh Muslim University was founded in 1920.
5. Under the Viceroy Lord Reading (1921-26), Railway Budget was separated from General Budgets in 1921. And Vishwa Bharti University started by Rabindra Nath Tagore.

Lord Irwin (1926-31)
1. Popularly known as Christian Viceroy.
2. Appointment of Indian States Commission under Harcourt Butler in 1927 to recommend measures for the establishment of better relations between the Indian States and the Central Government.
3. Sharda Act was passed in 1929. It prohibited marriage of girls below 14 and boys below 18.
4. Indian School of Mines was opened in Dhanbad.
5. Chauri-Chaura incident in 1922 Swaraj Party in 1923, Kakori Train Dacoity in 1925, Formation of RSS in 1925.
6. Simon Commission was arrived in Bombay.
7. Gandhiji began Dandi March.
8. First Round Table Conference took place with out Congress.
9. Gnadhi-Irwin pact was signed.

Lord Linlithgow (1936-43)
1. Quit India Movement in 1942 started by Gandhi Ji.
2. Under Lord Wavel (1943-47), Interim Government was formed on 2 Sep 1946,
P.M of Britain made announcement of Independence on Feb 20 1947, Cabinet Mission was appointed in 1946.
3. Lord Mountbatten first Governor General of Free India from 1947-48.
4. His Plan to make India free on 15 Aug. 1947.
5. C Rajagopalachari, first Indian Governor General of free India. From 1948-50.



praveen goud said...

Warren Hastings (1772-74) printed mistakely his reign was during 1772-1784

Kundan Bhagat said...

The writer had beautifully enumerated the important points...great thanks!!