December 7, 2009

Andhra Pradesh Water Sources

    Andhra Pradesh is blessed with many major rivers, the most important being Godavari, Krishna, Pennar and Vamsadhara. The state, share of dependable flows from all the rivers and streams is estimated at 2746 TMC. And only 1753 TMC has been utilized so far. The total cultivable area of the state is 392 lakh acres and at present 292 lakh acres is being cultivated from all sources.

    After Independence Government have given highest priority for irrigation sector which is the key force behind the agricultural revolution. Many gigantic projects have been taken up in addition to many medium and minor schemes, thus creating a total irrigation potential of 134 lakh acres. The goal is to reach the ultimate IP of 217 lakh acres.

The State's (surface and ground) water resources are estimated to be 108.15 BCM (3820 TMC), out of which about 62.29 BCM (2200 TMC) are currently being utilised for drinking, agriculture, industry and power generation. The per capita annual water resources work out to be slightly more than 1400 Cu. M, and utilisation is about 800 Cu. M. The current percentage withdrawal of available water in Andhra Pradesh is 58%. (Source: Water Conservation Mission – AP Water Vision)


Water resources of Andhra Pradesh

The total annual yield of surface water (rivers) is assessed at 2,746 tmc, of which the

major contribution comes from Godavari, Krishna and Pennar rivers. The Godavari

contributes about 1,493 tmc, which constitutes 54% of the total annual yield of surface

water. The replenishable groundwater in the State is assessed at 1,068 tmc. The water

required by 2025 is estimated at 3,814 tmc for irrigation, 122 tmc for drinking, 51 tmc for

industries and 2 tmc for power generation. However, the current utilization of water is

2268 tmc for irrigation, 21 tmc for drinking, 10 tmc for industries and 1 tmc for power


The average annual rainfall of Andhra Pradesh ranges from 500 mm annually in the

South–West to 1,100 mm in the North-East. Andhra Pradesh is having 27.5 million

hectares of geographical area with gross and net cropped area of 13.2 and 11.5 million

hectares respectively and forests occupying 22.6% of the geographical area and irrigated

area occupy 5.77 million ha (2004-05). The net irrigated area is 3.88 m ha of which

34.7% under canals, 12.3% under tanks and 53% under tube wells and other sources. The

irrigation potential in Andhra Pradesh has been estimated to be 11.3 million ha.

In Andhra Pradesh, the total irrigated area (net) increased from 27.47lakh ha in 1955 to

45.27 lakh ha in 2000. Much of the growth in irrigated area in A.P. since 1985 has come

from tube wells and the area under tanks has decreased. There was no improvement in

irrigated area from 1975 to 2000 under canal system. Rice is the most important irrigated

crop in A.P. In A.P., large parts of new irrigated area are being cropped with rice and the

proportion of rice area that is irrigated is increasing.

The area under food and non-food crops accounts 63 and 37 % respectively of total

cultivated crop area. is under food crops and 37% under non-food crops. The pulses

occupy 1.80, oilseeds 3.04 m ha respectively. In Andhra Pradesh, at present 98.8% of

Sugarcane, 95.8% of Turmeric, 95.2% of Rice, 64.2% of Chillies and 12.7% of Cotton is

irrigated. However, rice consumes 67%, groundnut 8.4% and sugarcane 5.4% of

irrigation water.

The water supplied for domestic and industrial purposes constituted only 0.9% and 0.45%

respectively of the total water utilized in the State in 2001. By 2025, the total assessed

water yield from the surface and groundwater will have to be exploited to the fullest

extent, as the water requirement for the domestic and industrial sectors is estimated to

reach 3% and 1.27% respectively of the State's available resources. By 2025, no

additional demand of water for any of the sectors can be met from the available fresh

water sources of the State. Even to barely meet the projected demands, there will have to

be 100% exploitation of the annual assessed water yield. Given the present population

and the total assessed annual water yield, Andhra Pradesh has a water availability of 1400

m3 per capita per annum, which brings the State into the water scarce category (<1700 m3

per capita per annum is categorized as water scarce).

And by 2020, with the projected increase in the population to 90 million, the water

availability per capita per annum will be 1150 m3, bringing the State closer to the severe

scarce category (<1000 m3 per capita per annum). Thus, in order to sustain further growth

and development, the limited water resources available will have to be utilized effectively

and efficiently.

There are six major soil groups – Red soil (66%); black soil (25%); alluvial clay loam

soil (5%); coastal sands (3%) and problem soils (1%) in the state. Rice is the most

important irrigated crop in A.P. Large new irrigated area are being cropped with rice and

the proportion of rice area that is irrigated is increasing.

To overcome the problems due to frequent failure of monsoon rains and its erratic

distribution in recent years, the Government of Andhra Pradesh has taken up surface lift

irrigation projects on major rivers Godavari and Krishna and their tributaries. The

Government is spending Rs. 500 – 1000 thousand million for providing irrigation to 2.0 –

2.4 million ha additionally through gravity surface canal system and by pumping the

impounded water in Godavari and Krishna rivers and their tributaries to higher elevated

areas (River lift irrigation projects – Bhima, Kalwakurthy, Nettempadu, Devadula, Gutpa,

Alisagar, Dummagudem (Indira sagar and Rajiv sagar) Sripada sagar, Pranahita-Chevella

and Puskaram etc).

Methods of irrigation

The field and horticultural crops are irrigated mostly through surface irrigation by

adopting check basin, border strips, furrow, sprinkler and drip. In Andhra Pradesh under

AP Micro Irrigation Project it is planned to bring 2.5 lakh ha of area under micro

irrigation through drip and sprinkler methods by the end of 2007 with an investment of

Rs. 1200 crores. The micro irrigation which is most efficient water management

technique though recommended for adoption under lift irrigation systems, its adoption is

limited. Further, the scheduling of irrigation through micro-irrigation for different crops

both horticulture and agriculture needs attention for development of technology.

Irrigation efficiency

Irrigation efficiency is defined in terms of the amount of water required for

evapotranspiration (ET) divided by the amount of irrigation water diverted into the


system. Although the definition of efficiency is not consistent among studies (e.g. it often

includes seepage and percolation [S&P] as well as runoff and transpiration [R&T] as

requirements), the efficiency of rice-based systems is less than 50 percent and lowers in

the wet than in the dry season. Project water use efficiency range from 17-48%. Reasons for

such low efficiencies and remedial measures for improving project water efficiency are

required. Due to various reasons, there is no equity and reliability of water supply under

major irrigation projects in the state. There is considerable scope to improve the irrigation

efficiencies in the irrigation systems of Andhra Pradesh.

Agricultural water management issues in Andhra Pradesh

Major irrigation projects

Major projects of Andhra Pradesh like Nagarjuna Sagar, Sri Ram Sagar, Thungabhadra,

and Srisailam are getting silted every year by loosing more than 5 TMC of water storage.

The problem of silting of reservoirs in medium and minor irrigation projects is also a

common feature in Andhra Pradesh. There is a need to have critical review of catchment

treatment strategies, soil and moisture conservation practices.

Basin wise database on land, water, ecosystems management is meager and it is needed

for proper planning of resources. Need for studies on surface drainage and drainage water

recycling in major irrigation projects for reducing the surface water demand through

irrigation canals. The conjunctive use of ground and surface water in irrigation

commands are not critically analyzed. Further, under the projects the conjunctive use of

rain and surface water is seldom considered in releasing canal water. This practice results

in under utilization of stored water in projects.

The overall objectives are to improve the performance of surface irrigation systems,

where water is supplied to farms from large distribution networks. Attempts are to be

made to determine the effectiveness of these tools in improving irrigation system


Minor irrigation (Tanks / Lakes)

Andhra Pradesh is having about 80,000 tanks which get filled once in 5-10 years.

Because of this the tanks have become defunct. Lack of sufficient rains (high intensity

rains to generate the run-off) is the main reason for poor filling of the tanks. Inadequate

supply of water from tanks, monocropping with emphasis on rice, salinity and alkalinity

in the command area is the common feature under tanks. The farmers prefer to wait for

the rains and filling of the tank for raising rice instead cultivation of ID crops. In and

around the big cities and towns the tanks / lakes are getting polluted due to release of

feacal, organic and inorganic pollutants. Further, eutrofication is also observed in most of

the lakes and reservoirs.

Due to lack of water in tanks the tube well irrigation under tank commands increased

which created fluoride problem in the villages. The influence of watershed management

works did not result in considerable increase in water table due to continuous withdrawal

of ground water for cultivation. There is a need to study the influence of rainfall, the

watershed works, and their impact on ground water in watersheds (Water Budgeting).

Ground water

The rice cultivation under wells influenced the ground water depletion to a greater extent

and as a result some of the areas have become critical and over exploited. The Central

Ground Water Authority in consultation with the State Ground Water Department,

Government of Andhra Pradesh has declared 80 mandals as critical and 230 mandals as

over-exploited in different districts. Further, due to over-exploitation there is

deterioration in quality of ground water especially fluoride problem in many parts of the

state. These over exploited areas need special attention by which they can be brought

back to sustainability in ground water availability.

In project command areas only 20% of the ground water is utilized where 60% of the

ground water of the state is available. On the other hand, 80% of the ground water is

utilized in non-command areas where only 40% of ground water of the state is available.

The State Government has constituted the "Andhra Pradesh Water, Land and Trees Act

2002 '' to promote water conservation, tree cover and check the exploitation and use of

ground and surface water for protection and conservation of water sources, land and

environment and matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.

Water quality

The quality of a river is maintained by its flow, minimum silt and indicated by its

ecological balance and biodiversity, including fisheries. Increased population,

industrialization, agriculture intensification and other activities like aquaculture have

contributed to increased waste discharge into the surface water bodies especially in


Surface water

Surface water, i.e., water in rivers, streams and tanks, has been contaminated with

sewerage and other solid wastes from urban and rural habitations and industrial pollution.

The National River Conservation Plan (NRCP) has selected Bhadrachalam, Manchiryal,

Rajahmundry, and Ramagundam form comprehensive treatment of pollution. The

possibility of recycling domestic waste into fertilizers poses a tremendous potential and

must be actively piloted.


Due to frequent poor and erratic rainfall, there is a pressure on groundwater utilization.

Indiscriminate tapping of groundwater in the State by too much drilling and construction

of deep tube wells and bore wells, followed by unregulated pumping of wells have

resulted in over exploitation and depletion of groundwater resources in certain areas. The

trend of the depth to water level from 1998-2002 indicates an average fall of 2.97 M in

the State. Tremendous increase in wells from 0.8 million to 2.2 millions in 22 years, with

corresponding increase in area irrigated from 1.0 million hectares to 2.6 million hectares

has resulted in the exploitation of 56% of annual ground water resources of the State.

Groundwater is an important source of drinking water but is polluted because of the

waste generated in the industrial, agriculture and domestic sectors. According to a report

of the State Ground Water Department and on data generated over the last 10 yeas in

Telangana region, fluoride concentration is high in ground water in Nalgonda and

Karimnagar districts In Coastal Andhra salt water intrusion was found . In Anantapur

district of Rayalaseema region high fluoride concentration is found in groundwater. It has

reached endemic proportions in Nalgonda, RangaReddy, Kurnool, Karimnagar and

Prakasam districts.

In rivers like Musi, Krishna, Godavari and their tributaries the faecal / toxic pollutants

contaminate the water and result water pollution. The river Musi is the most

contaminated one due to release of urban untreated human and animal wastes into the

river. The water pollution is observed on both sides of the river upto 100 Km length. Use

of this water for cultivation of crops includes para grass, rice and vegetables. The

intensity of contamination decreases as the distance from Hyderabad increases. The

different concentrations of wastewater influence differently on the biodiversity and

human activities.

Due to decrease in river water flows that empty into sea in the coastal area resulting in

ingression of salinity in land thereby the salinity of inland soil and ground water is

increasing in some parts of the coastal Andhra.




Some important Facts of Andhra Pradesh - Small Review

  • Andhra Pradesh has an area of 275.04 lakh ha, forming 8.37 percent of total geographical area of the country.
  • Andhra Pradesh is endowed with many major rivers, the most important being the Godavari, Krishna, Vamshadhara and Pennar. 
  • Apart from these, there are 37 tributaries and other minor rivers flowing through the state. 
  • The total surface water of entire river systems of the state is estimated to be of the order of 2746 Thousand Million Cubic Feet (TMC) at 75 percent dependability.
  • The state has tropical to sub-tropical climate. In the coastal area, humid to semihumid conditions prevail while in the interiors of the state; the climate is arid to semi-arid. 
  • The interior plateau areas have hot summers with relatively pleasant winters.
  • Andhra Pradesh falls under the 10th and 11th Agro-climatic zones as per 15 agroclimatic zones classified by the Planning Commission, Government of India. 
  • Fourteen districts of Rayalaseema and Telangana form part of the Southern Plateau and Hills zone (Zone 10) while the 9 coastal districts form part of the East-Coast plain and Hills Zone (Zone 11).
  • The state receives major portion of its rainfall from South – West Monsoon. 
  • During 2007-08 the state received 747 mm rainfall against the normal rainfall of 624 mm during South – West Monsoon and 163 mm of rainfall during North – East Monsoon as against the normal rainfall of 224 mm.
Topics To Be Read

  • The state also has the second longest coastline (974 kms) among all the littoral states in India.
  • A twenty two feet tall bronze statue of Mahatma Gandhi, in a posture of meditation, was erected in front of the Old Assembly building on 15th August, 1998, 51st Independence day of our Country.
  • The Golden Jubilee Celebrations of Andhra Pradesh legislative Assembly have been organised for a period of one year from 3rd December, 2005.
  • Mir Alam Tank was constructed in just two years. 1804-1806. It was built under the supervision of H. Russell of Royal Engineers of the Madras Regiment.
  • APSRTC is in the Guinness Book of World Records for being the Single Largest Corporation owing the largest fleet of buses in the world. It is also the world's largest public transport organization and the largest road transportation company in the world.
  • Golconda, near Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh, India), was India’s richest diamond mine, having produced renowned diamonds like: the Koh-i-Noor, the Darya-e-Nur, the Nur-Ul-Ain, the Hope diamond and the Regent diamond.
  • Telugu, the official language of Andhra Pradesh, is described by C.P. Brown as the " Italian of the East ". It has been influenced by Sanskrit. The prominent poets of Telugu include Nannaya, Tikkana,Sri Nathudu, Tenali Rama Krishna, Sri Krishna Devarayulu and a host of others.


December 6, 2009

Mineral Resources of India - a review

India possesses huge mineral wealth but it is not much exploited. Coal, gold, mica, building materials, salt, petroleum, manganese ore, iron ore, copper ore and ilmenite are produced in quantities to be of real importance to industry and other sectors of economy. Out of these, mica, manganese ore and ilmenite are largely exported. India has, however, adequate resources of industrial clay, steatite, bauxite, chromite, titanium ore etc.

Minerals—Where Found
(The first-mentioned is the State in which the mineral is chiefly found)
Aluminium: Kerala. It is extracted from Bauxite.
Antimony: Antimony deposits are found in the Punjab and Karnataka.
Asbestos: Karnataka and Rajasthan.
Barytes: (Barium Sulphate) Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Manbhum and Singhbhum districts of Jharkhand.
Bantonite: Rajasthan and Jammu and Kashmir.
Bauxite: Ranchi and Palamau districts of Jharkhand, Belgaum, Kharia and Thana districts of Maharashtra; Balaghat, Jabalpur, Mandia and Bilaspur districts of Madhya Pradesh. It is an ore of aluminium.
Beryllium Sands: Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Kashmir and Bihar.
Cement: Katni in M.P., Lakheri in Rajasthan, Jabalpur (M.P.), Guntur (Andhra Pradesh), Jhinkapani (Singhbhum district of Jharkhand), Surajpur (Haryana).
China Clay: Rajmahal Hills, Singhbhum district of Bihar, Kerala.
Chromite: Singhbhum and Bhagalpur (Jharkhand); Ratnagiri, Salem (Tamil Nadu); Karnataka; Keonjhar (Orissa); Ladakh (Kashmir).
Coal: Raniganj (West Bengal); Jharia, Giridih, Karanpur (Bihar); Bokaro, (Jharkhand) Panch Valley and Chanda (M.P.); Singareni (Andhra Pradesh) and Mukum (Assam).
Cobalt: Rajasthan and Kerala.
Copper: Jharkhand (Singhbhum and Barajamda); Rajasthan (Khetri).
Corborundum: Khasi Hills (Assam); Rewa (M.P.); Salem (Tamil Nadu); Karnataka and Jammu & Kashmir.
Diamond: Diamond mines are found in Panna district of Madhya Pradesh.
Feldspar: Burdwan (West Bengal); Rewa (M.P.); Tiruchirapalli (Tamil Nadu); Alwar and Ajmer (Rajasthan).
Fuller's Earth: (soft clay used in soap-making) is found in Rajasthan, M.P. and Karnataka.
Gold: Kolar gold-fields (Karnataka).
Graphite: Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Orissa and Kerala.
Gypsum: Bikaner and Jodhpur (Rajasthan), Tiruchirapalli (Tamil Nadu), Gujarat and Himachal Pradesh.
Heavy Water: Talchar in Orissa; Kota in Rajasthan; Baroda in Gujarat; Tuticorin in Tamil Nadu; Nangal in Punjab.
Ilmenite: Kerala. Occurs in the "Bank Sands" of the beaches near Quilon.
Iron Ore: Singhbhum (Jharkhand), Keonjhar and  Mayurbhanj (Orissa).
Kaynite: largest deposits occur at Kharswan near Jamshedpur, Singhbhum (Bihar).
Lac: W. Bengal.
Lead: Zawar in Udaipur and at the Banjavi mines in Jaipur (Rajasthan).
Lignite: Neyveli in South Arcot district (Tamil Nadu).
Limestone: Singareni and Singhbhum (Jharkhand), Panchmahal (Gujarat), Balaghat, Bhandara, Chhindwara, Nagpur, Indore, Vishakhapatnam, Sandur (Tamil Nadu).
Manganese: Madhya Pradesh.
Marble: Jaipur (Rajasthan).
Mica: Koderma in Hazaribagh district, Monghyr (Bihar), Nellore in Andhra Pradesh.
Monazite Sands: are found in abundance in Travancore coast (Kerala State). Thorium is processed from Monazite sands.
Nitre: Bihar, U.P., Tamil Nadu and Punjab.
Petroleum: Digboi, Badarpur, Musimpur and Patharia fields of Assam, Cambay basin near Baroda where oilfields have been discovered and production has started. Large-scale drilling for oil is in progress in India in Bombay and Gujarat.
Pitchblende: Gaya (Bihar).
Red Stone: Jodhpur (Rajasthan).
Salt: Sambhar Lake (Rajasthan), and is also obtained from ocean water of Ranns of Kutch, on the north-western and south-eastern littoral (sea-shore) of India.
Saltpetre: Punjab, U.P. and Bihar.
Silmanite: Khasi Hills (Assam); Rewa (M.P.). Silmanite is used in the manufacture of furnace-lining in iron and steel industry. It is also used in glass and ceramic industry.
Silver: Karnataka; Singhbhum and Manbhum (Jharkhand); Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan.
Steatite: Guntur (Andhra Pradesh), Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, U.P., Karnataka and Rajasthan.
Tin: (Bihar) Hazaribagh district.
Thorium: (Processed from monazite sand) Travancore (Kerala).
Tungsten: Bihar, Nagpur (Maharashtra) and Marwar.
Uranium: Bihar.
Zinc: from Zawar mines in Udaipur (Rajasthan).
Zircon: occurs in the beach sands of Kerala and Cape Comorin.

Bihar produces 40% of the mineral wealth of India.


Chief Crops and Producing States

(The first mentioned is the chief producing State)

Bajra (millets): Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan.
Barley: U.P., Bihar, Haryana. Its cultivation requires cool climate.
Cardamom: Karnataka. India is the largest producer of cardamom in the world.
Cashewnut: Kerala.
Cinchona: Tamil Nadu (Nilgiri Hills); West Bengal (Darjeeling).
Coconut: Kerala is the leading producer of coconut in India. A coconut tree normally yield 60-70 nuts in a year.
Coffee: Karnataka, Tamil Nadu (Nilgiri Hills) and Kerala. It is a tropical shrub.
Cotton: Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Punjab and Maharashtra.
Cotton Seeds: Maharashtra, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
Gram and Pulses: U.P., Madhya Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab, Maharashtra and Karnataka.
Groundnut: Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh.
Hemp: Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and U.P.
Jute: Assam, West Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.
Linseed: Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa, U.P.,  Maharashtra and West Bengal.
Maize: U.P., Bihar and the Punjab.
Mustard and Rape-seed (Sarson): U.P., West Bengal, Punjab, Bihar and Orissa.
Poppy (opium plant): U.P., Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir.
Rice: Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Tamil Nadu and Orissa. Rice is sown on the largest acreage in India.
Rubber: Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka.
Saffron: Jammu and Kashmir. It is obtained from the stigma of the saffron plant.
Silk: Karnataka, Jammu & Kashmir, West Bengal and Assam.
Spices: Pepper in Kerala and West Bengal; Chillies in West Bengal, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra; Cardamom in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu; Betelnuts in West Bengal and South India.
Sugarcane: U.P., Bihar, West Bengal, Punjab and Maharashtra.
Tea: Assam, West Bengal, Kerala and Tamil Nadu (Nilgiri Hills), Uttarkhand (Dehradun)  and Himachal Pradesh (Kangra Hills).
Tobacco: Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, U.P., West Bengal, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.
Wheat: U.P., Punjab, Haryana and Madhya Pradesh. To some extent in Bihar, Rajasthan and Maharashtra. It is sown in October-November and reaped in April.


Favourable climate and soil conditions for the growth of certain crops

Wheat: Its plant requires a cool climate in the beginning, warm and dry weather at the time of harvesting and rainfall at intervals—between 20'' to 30''. A clayey soil is very favourable.
Barley: cool climate and a soil poorer than that required for wheat.
Rice: hot and moist climate with rainfall from 40'' to 80'' or over and rich soil. The plant is required to remain under water for several days in the beginning. A marshy soil is very suitable.
Sugarcane: an evenly high temperature with sufficient rainfall—about 40''. It needs a fertile soil, having lime and salt in it.
Tobacco: hot and moist climate; rich soil.
Spices: (pepper, cinnamon, cardamom, cloves, nutmegs) hot, moist and even climate.
Opium: It requires hot and moist climate with a rich soil.
Maize: warm and moist (but not very moist) climate.
Cotton: It requires warm, moist and even climate where summer is long and where the soil contains salt. Sea-breeze is beneficial for quality of the fibre. The ideal situation for plantation is lowlands near the sea coast or on islands in semi-tropical latitudes.
Jute: It requires a high temperature with a minimum of about 80°F during the period of growth. It also needs rich sandy soil, sufficient rainfall well distributed over the period of growth, ample supply of water for soaking of plants and for washing the stripped fibre. It also needs suitable and sufficient labour to handle the crop at the proper time.
Rubber: The plantation of rubber trees is better adapted to areas where the climate is warm and humid.
Tea: (Tea is dried leaves of an evergreen shrub). It requires warm and moist climate. It is grown on mountain slopes. At least 60'' annual rainfall in showers is needed for the new leaves to sprout. If water is allowed to stay, the roots are destroyed. So mountain slopes on which water does not accumulate are necessary. Soil containing iron is an additional advantage.
Coffee: requires warm and moist climate and a height between 457 metres and 762 metres—rainfall above 60''. The plant cannot stand extreme cold. When young, the plant is required to be protected from strong sunshine.
Millets: (Jawar and Bajra) require a hot and sufficiently dry climate and poor soil.
Groundnuts: require a hot climate and moderate rainfall 29'' to 40''. Soil should be light and sandy.
Oilseeds: require hot and moist climate and a rich soil.

Diseases of Crops
Black heart: Potatoes
Kernel bunt: Wheat
Powdery Mildew: Peas
Red Rot: Sugarcane

Fertilizers normally contain three main ingredients namely nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.
Nitrogen: imports a healthy green colour to the leaves.
Phosphorus: hastens leaf development and promotes root growth.
Potassium: plays an essential part in the formation of starch.


World’s Largest Producers of Crops, Minerals, Industrial goods.

(The first-mentioned country in each case shown in italics is the largest producer)

Aluminium: U.S.A., Canada Norway, Switzerland, France and India.
Asbestos: Canada leads in the world in production of Asbestos.
Carpets: Iran, India.
Cheese: U.S.A., England, Netherlands and Australia.
Coal: U.S.A., England, Germany, Russia, Australia and India.
Cocoa: Ghana, S. America and West Indies.
Coffee: Brazil, Indonesia, India.
Copper: Chile.
Cotton: U.S.A., Russia, Egypt, India, Brazil, Argentina and Pakistan.
Electric Bulbs: England, U.S.A., India.
Gold: South Africa, Australia, Canada, S. America, India.
Ilmenite: India.
Iron ore: U.S.A., CIS, U.K., France, Germany, India and Spain.
Jute: Bangladesh, India.
Manganese: India is largest producer of Manganese in the world. Gabon Republic situated on the western coast of South Africa is known as having one of the richest deposits at Moanda.
Mercury: Italy, Spain and U.S.A.
Monazite: India, supplies 88% of the world's need.
Petroleum: U.S.A., Venezuela, Russia, Middle East countries, Iran and Myanmar.
Plastic Goods: U.S.A., England.
Rock Phosphate: Morocco is world's leading supplier.
Rubber: Malaysia, Indonesia and Sri Lanka. About 40% of the world's natural rubber is produced by Malaysia.
Silk: China, U.S.A., France.
Silver: Mexico, U.S.A., Peru and India.
Steel: U.S.A., Germany, CIS and England.
Sugar: Cuba.
Tea: India, China, Sri Lanka, Japan and Indonesia.
Tin: Malaysia, Indonesia.
Wool: Australia, Argentina, New Zealand and South Africa.


Important Scientific laws - for Competitive Exams

Archimedes' Principle: It states that a body, when immersed in a liquid, experiences an upward thrust equal to the weight of the liquid displaced by it.

Avogadro's Hypothesis: It is a modification of Berzelius' hypothesis. It states that equal volumes of all gases under similar conditions of temperature and pressure contain equal number of molecules. Avogadro's law is applicable only to gases.

Boyle's Law: states that the volume of certain gas is inversely proportional to the pressure at a constant temperature. In other words the product of pressure  and volume remains constant provided the temperature is kept constant i.e., P x V = a constant if T remains the same.

Charles's Law: It states that at constant pressure all gases expand by 1/273 of their volume at 0°C for a rise in temperature of 1°C  i.e., the volume of a given mass of gas at constant pressure is directly proportional to the absolute temperature.

Dulong and Petit's Law: states that the product of atomic weight and specific heat of solid elements is nearly equal to 6.4 i.e., At wt. x sp. heat = 6.4 approx.


70+ Important Scientific Instruments and their uses - for Competitive Exams

Altimeter: an apparatus used in aircraft for measuring altitudes.
Ammeter: is used for to measure Electric Current.
Anemometer: is an instrument for measuring the force and velocity of wind.
Audiometer: an instrument to measure intensity of sound.
Audiophone: is an instrument required for improving imperfect sense of hearing.
Barograph: for continuous recording of atmospheric pressure.
Barometer: is an apparatus used for measuring the atmospheric pressure.
Binoculars: is an instrument used for seeing distant objects, the rays of light are twice reflected by means of right-angled prisms.
Callipers: a compass with legs for measuring the inside or outside diameter of bodies.
Calorimeter: an instrument used for measuring quantities of heat.
Carburettor: is an apparatus for charging air with petrol vapours in an internal combustion engine.
Cardiogram: a medical instrument used for tracing the movements of the heart.
Cardiograph: is a medical instrument for tracing heart movements.
Chronometer: is an instrument kept on board the ships for measuring accurate time.


December 5, 2009

Famous Sites in India of Historical Importance


Adina Mosque: Pandua (West Bengal)
Ajanta Caves: Aurangabad (Maharashtra)
Akbar's Tomb: Sikandra, Agra
Aksherdham: Gandhinagar, Gujarat
Amarnath Cave: Kashmir
Amber Palace: Jaipur (Rajasthan)
Anand Bhawan: Allahabad
Bibi Ka Maqbra: Aurangabad
Birla Planetarium: Kolkata
Black Pagoda: Konarak (Orissa)
Bodhistava: Ajanta Caves
Brihadeeswara: Tanjore Temple


December 1, 2009


Special Notes for reference to posted by Naik


5.1    Sustainable growth in agriculture sector is the "need of the hour" not only for the state of Andhra Pradesh but also for the country as a whole. Economy of Andhra Pradesh continues to be predominantly agrarian. The dependence of rural labour force on agriculture and allied activities is quite evident and is likely to continue on the same lines in the near future. Apart from direct impact of agricultural growth on generation of rural employment and incomes its significant secondary linkages with the development of rural non-farm sectors are more crucial. Trade in agricultural outputs and inputs and services required by it and processing of its products open up additional and more significant avenues for labour absorption. Andhra Pradesh being an important producer of Groundnut, Cotton, Chillies, Sugarcane etc., and quite a number of Horticultural crops, such secondary linkages of agriculture assume added importance to its rural economy, more so now in the context of new Agricultural Policy initiatives taken up by the government.

Land Utilization

The total geographical area of the State is 274.40 lakh hectares. Out of the geographical area 39.5 percent under net area sown, 22.6 percent under forests, 8.9 percent under current fallow lands, 9.5 percent under land put to non-agricultural uses, 7.6 percent under barren and uncultivable land and remaining 11.9 percent under Others (Other fallow lands, Cultivable waste, Permanent pastures and other grazing lands and Land under miscellaneous tree crops and groves not included in the net area sown). During the year 2005-06, the net area sown increased to 108.39 lakh hectares from 104.31 lakh hectares in 2004-05 (including fish ponds). The land utilisation particulars from 1955-56 to 2005-06 are given in the Annexure 5.1.


Agriculture in Andhra Pradesh is mostly dependent on rainfall. South-West and North-East Monsoons are the two important sources of rainfall in the State.  South-West monsoon is spread over the period from June to September and North-East Monsoon from October to December. The State receives major portion of its rainfall from South-West Monsoon. The influence of South-West Monsoon is predominant in Telangana region (715 mm.) followed by Coastal Andhra (620 mm.) and Rayalaseema (407 mm.). South-West Monsoon entered in the state on 27th May 2006 covering some parts of Rayala Seema and Coastal Andhra. It advanced into the remaining parts of the state including Telangana and covered the entire Andhra Pradesh by 24th June 2006. During South-West Monsoon 2006, the State received an average rainfall of 627 mm. as against the normal of 624 mm. The state received uneven rains with dry spells and heavy downpours during the season and distributed unevenly across the state. Therefore, the rains adversely affected the kharif crops in some of the state. The monsoon withdrew from the state on 17th October 2006.

North-East Monsoon entered the state on 19th October 2006. During the Monsoon, the State as a whole received an average rainfall of 168 mm. against a normal of 224 mm. at a deficit of 25 percent. The North-East Monsoon provides high amount of rainfall in Coastal Andhra area (324 mm.) followed by Rayalaseema (238 mm.) and Telangana (130 mm.).  There are no significant differences in normal distribution of rainfall during winter and hot weather periods among the regions.

The Season-wise and Region-wise average rainfall from 1983-84 to 2006-07 and the Season-wise and district-wise distribution of rainfall during the year 2006-07 in the State are shown in Annexure 5.2 and 5.3 respectively.

Area and Production

(Crop Forecast for 2006-07)

As per the advance estimates, at the end of December 2006 the area sown under total foodgrains in the state is 70.75 lakh hectares in 2006-07 against 71.68 lakh hectares in 2005-06. The area under groundnut decreased to 13.21 lakh hectares in 2006-07 from 18.76 lakh hectares in 2005-06.

As per the advance estimates, the production of total food grains in the State might decrease to 159.97 lakh tonnes in 2006-07 from 169.50 lakh tonnes in 2005-06. Production of rice expected to be 121.27 lakh tonnes in 2006-07 against 117.04 lakh tonnes in 2005-06, whereas, the production of groundnut is expected to decrease to 7.09 lakh tonnes in 2006-07 from 13.66 lakh tonnes in 2005-06. Production of foodgrains from 1955-56 to 2005-06 is shown in Annexure 5.4.

The crop intensity (the ratio of gross cropped area to net cropped area) for the year 2005-06 works out to 1.24. Season-wise area, production and productivity of selected crops are shown in the Annexure 5.5, 5.6 and 5.7 respectively.

The annual rate of growth of aggregate agricultural output declined from 3.4 percent in 1980's to 2.3 percent in 1990's. The yield growth also declined.

Gross and Net Area Irrigated

The gross area irrigated in the State increased to 59.96 lakh hectares in 2005-06 from 49.87 lakh hectares in 2004-05. The increase is 20.2 percent. The Gross area irrigated under wells accounted for a major share of 46.6 per cent (27.96 lakh hectares) followed by Canals with 37.2 percent (22.31 lakh hectares) and Tanks with 12.7 percent (7.62 lakh hectares) in 2005-06.

The Net area irrigated in the State increased to 43.93 lakh hectares in 2005-06 from 38.81 lakh hectares in 2004-05 showing an increase of 13.2 percent.  Net area irrigated under Wells accounted for a major share of 45.2 per cent (19.87 lakh hectares) followed by Canals 35.8 percent (15.72 lakh hectares) and Tanks 15.1 percent (6.62 lakh hectares) in 2005-06.  Source-wise Gross and Net area irrigated is shown in Annexure 5.8 and 5.9 respectively.

Land Holdings:

The data on land holdings in the State is being collected from 1970-71 through a quinquennial Census of Land holdings and the latest relates to 2000-01. The average size of holdings in the State, which was 1.36 hectares during 1995-96, had declined to 1.25 hectares during 2000-01. The distribution of land holdings and area according to size class are shown in Annexure 5.10.


The seed requirement for kharif 2006 was estimated at 42.69 lakh quintals, out of which 18.79 lakh quintals was distributed enabling Seed Replacement Ratio (SRR) of 43%. For rabi season, the seed supply plan is prepared for 8.65 lakh quintals of seed as against the total requirement of 17.47 lakh quintals with a targeted SRR of nearly 50%.


A quantity of 7.15 lakh quintals has been distributed by incurring an amount of Rs.5966 lakhs and it is planned to distribute 4.8 lakh quintals of seed during Rabi with a subsidy of Rs.8,963   lakhs.

Particulars of seed supplied during Kharif 2006 are shown in Table 5.1.

Table 5.1

Seed Supply during Kharif 2006


Seed Requirement

Seed Supplied

SRR Achieved













































Source: - Agriculture Department

High Yielding Varieties:

The High Yielding Varieties programme (HYV) was initiated in the State during 1966-67 with the main objective of covering maximum area under high yielding varieties of five crops viz., Rice, Wheat, Jowar, Bajra, and Maize to increase production.  The total area covered under High Yielding Varieties programme in the State during 2005-06 was 52.74 lakh Hectares as against the target of 45.16 lakh Hectares.  The actual area covered in case of Paddy was 39.82 lakh Hectares followed by Maize 7.58 lakh Hectares, Jowar 4.44 lakh Hectares, Bajra 0.81 lakh Hectares, and Wheat 0.09 lakh Hectares.  During Kharif 2006, the total (estimated) area under HYV Programme is 33.71 lakh Hectares as against a target of 36.54 lakh Hectares. Season-wise area covered under High Yielding Varieties for specified crops from 2001-02 to 2005-06 are shown in Annexure 5.11.

Soil Testing:

Soil testing is carried out in the laboratory for evaluation of nutrient content and fertilizer recommendation. There are 22 District Soil Testing Labs (STLs), 2 Regional Soil Testing Labs and 4 Mobile Soil Testing Labs and 56 Agriculture Market Committee (AMC) Labs in A.P. Analysis is carried out for Electrical Conductivity (Soluble salt content) pH (Index for acidity / alkalinity) Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium (Macronutrients) in all the labs. In addition, the District STLs have the facility for analysis of micro-nutrients (Zinc, Iron, Copper and Manganese) and water analysis. The Target and achievements for the year 2005-06 and 2006-07 (Up to September 2006) are furnished in Table 5.2.

Table 5.2

Soil Testing



Target (Lakhs)


Macronutrients, EC & pH





















Source: - Agriculture Department

Soil Testing Kit:

The Department is distributing Soil Testing Kits for instant analysis at the site by the farmers themselves.  The kits are being supplied by A.P. Agros. These kits provide data on soil fertility at reasonable accuracy (around 70%), which is acceptable in a situation where the farmer applies the fertilizer without any basis.

During the year 2005-06, 10,000 Soil Testing kits have been distributed to RMGs, Polambadi Colaborators and Seed Village Programme. Training on using the Soil Testing Kits was already been organized. The capacity of each kit is to analyse 25 soil samples for pH, OC, N,P,K, S and Ca.

It is proposed to distribute 5000 Soil Testing Kits & 5000 Refills during the year 2006-07.  So far 4,217 Soil Testing Kits and 1,100 refills have already been distributed.

Fertilizer Policy:

Total fertilizer nutrient requirement during 2006-07 has been estimated at 31.69 lakh MTs. (14.81 lakh MTs. - Kharif 2006 and 16.88 lakh MTs-Rabi 2006-07). The nutrient wise requirement for N, P & K is in the order of 18.64, 8.64 and 4.41 lakh MTs. respectively.

Product-wise Fertilizer Consumption during Kharif 2006 and requirement for Rabi 2006-07 is presented in Table 5.3.

Table 5.3

Fertiliser Consumption - 2006-07

(Lakh MTs)












Di-Ammonium Phosphate




Murate of Potash


Calcium Ammonium Nitrate


Single Super Phosphate
























Source: - Agriculture Department

Consumption of fertilizers and the nutrients in the state are shown in Annexures 5.12 and 5.13.


The pesticide consumption has been decreasing gradually with the adoption of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) advocated intensively.  During Kharif 2006 about 425 MTs. of active ingredients were utilized for Plant Protection, which is the lowest ever recorded so far. Utilization of Pesticides is shown in Table 5.4.

Table 5.4

Utilization of Pesticides


Consumption in MT (Technical Grade)











206-07 (Upto Sept., 2006)


Source: - Agriculture Department

Farm Mechanization Scheme:

Farm Mechanization is gaining importance in the last five years for carrying out various farm activities effectively in less time with less effort. There is increased demand from the farming community for improved implements. This would result in efficiency and timeliness in the field operations, reduction in the cost of cultivation and improvement in the quality of produce for better marketability.

Farm Mechanization Scheme is being implemented since 2000-01. Depending on the types of crops grown, soil conditions, local situations and requirements in the districts, the Department has been distributing various farm machinery and implements on 50% subsidy subject to a maximum of Rs.30,000/- per unit to accelerate present pace of Mechanization.

Number of beneficiaries and amount incurred towards subsidy under Farm Mechanization Scheme are shown in Table 5.5.

Table 5.5

Achievements under Farm Mechanisation Scheme


No. of Beneficiaries

Subsidy Expenditure (Rs. in Lakhs)
















2006-07 (Upto Sept., 2006)



Source: - Agriculture Department


Agricultural Credit:

·         Target under Crop loans is Rs. 9,900 Crores.

·         Achievement is Rs 9,457 Crores, which is 95.52% of the target.

·         Target for Non-loanee coverage is 3.00 Lakh.

·         3.00 lakh No. of Non-loanees were covered.

·         Target under RMG financing is 35,000 Groups.

·         6,531 RMGs were provided credit by extending an amount of Rs. 80.47 crores. (15,700 tenant farmers were covered in those groups).

Rythu Mithra Groups (RMGs)

Government vide G.O.Ms.No.167, dated.25.06.03 have issued orders for formation of 2.00 (Two Lakh) RMGs consisting of Small, Marginal and Tenant farmers in the state. Accordingly 2.03 lakh RMGs have been formed.

Government have issued orders vide G.O. Ms. No. 482 dated 12.12.2005 for the formation and functioning of additional 1.00 lakh new Rythu Mithra Groups to be formed in the State exclusively with Small Farmers/Marginal Farmers and Tenant Farmers.

So far 22,287 RMGs have been formed and 14,290 Bank accounts were opened.

Credit linkage:

A pilot project for financing RMGs have been launched in (13) districts of the State during 2004-05 and 4,527 Rythu Mithra Groups covered involving an amount of Rs.29.14 Crores. During 2005-06, the Pilot project was extended to all the 22 districts in the state.

During 2005-06, 14,361 RMG groups have been extended credit facility with a financial outlay of Rs.157.66 Crores and 49587 no. of Tenant farmers have been covered.

For the year 2006-07, it is proposed to provide credit linkage to 57,970 RMG groups. So far 6,531 RMGs have been extended credit with a financial out lay of Rs.80.47 Crores

Input distribution through Rythu Mithra Groups (RMGs):

All the subsidy inputs supplied like Gypsum, Zinc Sulphate and Farm Machinery etc. were through RMG groups.

RMGs were sanctioned licenses for supply of seeds, Fertilizers and pesticides, particularly in remote areas where there are no co-operative and private outlets.

Disbursement of agricultural credit by different banks is shown in Annexure 5.14.

National Agricultural Insurance Scheme (NAIS):  (Crop Insurance)

National Agricultural Insurance Scheme was introduced by the Govt. of India in the country from Rabi 1999-2000.   In our state this scheme has been introduced from kharif 2000 season onwards with involvement of Agriculture    Department, Agriculture Insurance    Co.  (Implementing Agency) and Directorate of Economics and Statistics Department.  The Scheme is being implemented in the state with active participation and involvement of Dist. Co-op. Central Banks, Commercial Banks, Rural Banks and Primary Agricultural Co-operative Societies.


·         To provide a measure of financial support to the farmers in the event of crop failure as a result of drought, cyclone and incidence of pest & diseases.

·         To restore the credit eligibility of a farmer after a crop failure for the next season.

·         To support and stimulate the production of cereals, pulses and oil seed crops.

Crops Covered:-

During Kharif 2006 (19) crops were covered viz. 1. Rice 2. Jowar 3. Bajra 4.Maize 5. Blackgram 6. Greengram 7. Redgram 8.Goundnut(I) 9.Groundnut (UI) 10.Sunflower 11. Castor 12. Sugarcane (P) 13 Sugarcane (R) 14. Cotton (I) 15.Cotton (UI) 16.Chillies (I) 17.Chillies (UI) 18. Banana. 19. Soybean (introduced during Kharif 2006).

During Rabi 2005-06 (10) crops were covered viz. 1. Rice. 2. Jowar (UI) 3. Maize 4. Greengram 5. Blackgram 6. Groundnut 7. Sunflower 8. Chillies   9. Onion 10. Mango.

Bengalgram is introduced during Rabi 2006-07.

Farmers Covered:

All farmers who are availing crop loan for the notified crops from Commercial, Co.-opervative and Grameena Banks may be covered. Insurance premium is compulsory for all Loanee Farmers and voluntary for Non-Loanee Farmers.  10% subsidy on premium to small and marginal farmers during Kharif 2006 season.

National Agricultural Insurance Scheme

Pilot project Village as insurance Unit

Mandal or group of Mandals as insurance unit having an area of 2000 ha (5000 ac)

Village or group of villages as insurance unit having 100 ha (250 ac) implemented during kharif-2005 and kharif-2006 only.

Implemented in all districts of the State for the notified crops in notified areas as detailed above.

Only five districts with one crop per district as detailed below

Prakasam - Redgram

Kadapa - Groundnut

Anantapur - Groundnut

Mahabubnagar - Castor

Karimnagar - Maize

Soybean has been included in 4 districts Viz., Adilabad, Nizamabad, Medak & Guntur from Kharif 2006.

 Bengalgram crop has been included in 7 districts viz. Guntur, Mahaboobnagar, Prakasam, Kurnool, Ananthapur, Kadapa and Medak from Rabi-2007.

Progress of NAIS is shown in Annexure 5.15.

Commission on Farmers Welfare:

In G.O.Rt.No.942, Agriculture & Cooperation (FP-II) Department dated.8/9/2004, Government Constituted a Commission on Farmer's Welfare under the Chairmanship of Prof. Jayathi Ghosh to examine the circumstances leading to the suicides of farmers and to submit its recommendations. Accordingly, the Commission has already submitted its report. Government has approved all the major recommendations of the Commission.

So far out of the 45 recommendations made by the Commission pertaining to Agriculture Department; 44 recommendations are already implemented and one recommendation on ATM is under implementation.

Agriculture Technology Management Agency (ATMA)

Govt. of India approved implementation of the centrally sponsored scheme "Support to State Extension Programme for Extension Reforms" during the X Plan Period. The scheme shall be implemented through an autonomous District level institution to be established by the state in the form of an Agricultural Technology Management Agency (ATMA). Govt. of Andhra Pradesh identified six new districts for coverage under the scheme in addition to the existing four districts. Existing Districts Adilabad, Chittoor, Kurnool and Prakasam New Districts Srikakulam, Krishna, Ananthapur, Kadapa, Nizamabad, Rangareddy.

The following key reforms, in line with the Policy Framework for Agriculture Extension (PFAE) are being promoted under the scheme

¨       New institutional arrangements

¨       Convergence of line departments

¨       Multi Agency Extension Strategies

¨       Broad-Based extension delivery

¨       Group Approach to extension

¨       Gender Concerns

¨       Sustainability of Extension Services

An amount of Rs. 179.80 lakhs was released for ATMA.  The Govt. of India has sanctioned Rs.8.00 crores under the Prime Minister's Special Package to prevent suicide of farmers for a period of 3 years. During the current year an amount of Rs. 2.88 crores shall be utilized.

Agricultural Technology Mission (ATM)

Agricultural Technology Mission constituted w.e.f. 15/1/2006 under the chairman ship of Hon'ble Chief Minister on the lines of Planning Commission of India with a deputy Chairman and five full time members representing various sectors. The ATM's approach shall be holistic as it covers problems of all the sectors viz., Agriculture, Dairy, Poultry, Fisheries, Sericulture, Horticulture, Water conservation and Water Management in a sustainable and equitable basis so as to achieve atleast 4% compounded annual growth rate for all these sectors collectively as most of these sectors are inter dependent on each other.

Strategy for the Agricultural Technology Mission

·   Agro-climatic zone-based policy making and decision support.

·   Farming system approach - The State as a giant farm.

·   Demand driven as opposed to supply driven approach.

·   Agriculture to be run as an enterprise to give better returns to investment on a sustainable basis.

·   Focus on farm and crop diversification

·   PPP through contract farming, buy-back arrangements, investments in storage / cold storages, marketing extension etc.

·   An action plan to be prepared with

o Defined destination

o Quantified and deliverable outputs

o Milestones and signposts.

During the year 2005-06 an amount of Rs. 100.00 lakhs was released under ATM has been allocated to all the Districts for conduct of Rythu Sadassus as per the G.O.Ms.No. 413 dt. 1/6/2005.

World Trade Organization (WTO) Cell:

Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh has inaugurated the WTO Cell on 3rd November 2005 at the office of Commissioner & Director of Agriculture. The main objective of the WTO Cell is to create awareness among the farming community on WTO aspects and preparing them to meet challenges of WTO.

Activities Taken during 2005-06

A One-day workshop on WTO and its implications on Agriculture was organized to 30 representatives of farmers organizations in the State at the office of Commissioner of Agriculture on 30th November 2005.

A one-day interactive Workshop on WTO and its implications on Agriculture were conducted with all the Joint Directors of Agriculture of the State on 31st January 2006 at SAMETI, Hyderabad.

Crop Resource Groups (CRG)

Crop resource groups are formed to strengthen research extension and to provide interface between department officers, scientists and farmers for accelerating the growth and make agriculture an economically viable activity.  CRGs are formed for Paddy, Groundnut, Cotton & Crop Diversification.  Main functions of CRGs are as below:

Ø  Fine-tuning crop management in small fields

Ø  Bridging the gaps in potential and actual yields  

Ø  Evolving of appropriate crop diversification strategies in rain fed areas and precarious water sources

Ø  Developing Integrated Crop Management Program (ICPM) strategies towards optimum usage of chemical   pesticides and fertilizers & efficient use of water

Ø  Identification of production constraints in major crops in each district, and suggest crop specific interventions for productivity enhancement, quality improvement, pest and disease control, cost reduction etc.

Ø  Providing a single window delivery system of information to farmers about input availability suitable crop varieties, production technologies, market news, Quality norms (FAQs) etc.

Ø  Monitoring and evaluating information disseminated from the feedback obtained from farmers as a means of technology assessment and to improve a particular technology.

Polam Badi Program (Farmers Field School):

Annual crop losses due to pests in India amount to Rs.90,000 crores, rejection of Indian Agriculture exports by overseas customers because of high pesticide residues amount to Rs.4,000 crores annually, health hazards due to chemical pesticides, deaths due to pesticide poisoning (25,000-30,000 per year globally), development of incurable diseases like cancer and neurological disorders, presence of dichloro diphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) residues in mothers milk, cases of   suicides by farmers due to chemical pesticides are unable to control pests, resurgence of pests, out break of secondary pests etc.

To mitigate the above, Govt. of Andhra Pradesh has been implementing the POLAM BADI (Farmers Field School) in which emphasis has been laid on taking up of eco-friendly measures - bio-agents and bio-pesticides for control of crop pests, which in turn will reduce cost of cultivation and improve the quality of produce, resulting high market price and good returns. It will also leads to controlling health hazards to the living entity by preserving the natural ecosystem.

Table 5.6

Polam Badi during 2006-07

Polam Badi

Kharif 2006




Target (Nos)

Ach. (Nos)

Polam Badi - I




Polam Badi -I through Farmer Facilitator




Polam Badi -II




Polam Badi -III




Grand Total





(Rs. Lakhs)





Source: - Agriculture Department

Mission and Strategies

The major concern is to improve the farm incomes both in absolute terms and as a percentage of Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP).  The Department of Agriculture is therefore working with a mission of "Sustainable Agricultural Production with minimum cost of cultivation, eventually enhancing returns to the farmer".

In the process of making the mission a reality, the department is adopting following strategies:

·   Re-engineering extension approach for effective extension reach

·   Empowering the farmer with advance agricultural practices

·   Capacity enhancement of Departmental Staff for a efficient extension of technology

·   Ensuring timely input supply

·   Regulation of inputs and quality control

·   Soil test based fertilizer recommendation

·   Promotion of self-reliance in seed production among farmers

·   Promotion of Integrated Crop Management through INM, IPM, efficient water management, etc.

·   Promotion of organic farming to meet the demand of World Market

·   Correcting Micronutrient Zinc deficiency

·   Reclamation of Problematic soils to restore the productivity

·   Natural Resource Management through watershed approach for agricultural land development and environmental stability

·   Calamity Management in the event of drought, floods, hailstorms etc.

·   Promoting cultivation of low risk and low cost intensive crops

·   Farm Mechanization for item and cost effective farming practices

·   Promoting Farmers Organization (Rythu Mitra Groups) for technical and monitory benefits in Agriculture and allied activities

·   Facilitate the farmer to avail Agriculture Credit.

·   Women Empowerment and gender balance

·   Provide day-to-day information to farmer on crop production, input supply and marketing through Internet Services.

Highlights of 2005-06

·   27% increase in Food production over 2004-05.

·   Seed village programme implemented in 12,997 ha. as against 2,146 ha. during 2004-05. (6.7 lakh Qtls, seed produced).

·   6,589 Farmers field schools organized as against 706 during 2004-05.

·   Pesticide Consumption 1,675 M.Ts - Brought down by 40%.

·   11080 Vermicompost Units established as against 1800 units during 2004-05.

·   14,392 - System of Rice Intensification (SRI) Demonstrations as against 644 during 2004-05.

·   Crop diversification in 3.85 lakh ha. by replacing cotton, chillies, tobacco and paddy with pulses and oilseeds.

·   Farm implements distributed - 55,000 units (15% increase).

·   Facilitated in sanction of Rs. 13,306 crores of Agril. Credit (crop loan).

·   WTO & Gender Cell established in Agril. Department.

·   17 New Fertilizer testing labs and 19 New Seed Testing Labs established under Single Window Lab Concept.

·   Pesticide coding centre established.

·   A.P. State Bio Fertilizer Act 2005 passed in Legislative Assembly.

Rythu Chaitanya Yatras

Rythu Chaitanya Yatras were organized from 2nd April to 20th April 2006 to educate farmers on latest technology in Agriculture and allied subjects. More than 22 lakh farmers were trained. Ten allied Departments participated in Rythu Chaitanya Yatra. The group of Agriculture and Allied Departments' officers at Mandal level visited 54702 hamlets and conducted training programmes to train the farmers on Technology gaps and educate them on various government Programmes and Schemes. Focus was to increase the net income of farmers by reducing cost of cultivation.

Special Notes for reference to posted by Naik

Rythu Sadassus (Agricultural Exhibitions)

In all 79 Rythu Sadassus were organized at the Revenue divisional level for one day each from 3rd May to 6th May, 2006 to focus on strength of Agriculture and allied fields, so that they can take full advantage of the exhibitions, lecturers, interactions and demonstrations. More than 3 lakh farmers participated in the Sadassus.

National Workshops

National Workshops were organized separately one each for Cotton, Groundnut, Castor, Rice, Maize and Pulses at the Centre for Good Governance, Hyderabad between 27th February and 25th March 2006 for evolving strategies for sustainable production.

Crop Resource Groups and Experts from National Research Institutes and ANGRAU including ICRISAT have participated and framed recommendations.

Pre-seasonal Trainings

About 75,000 farmers were given preseasonal training in Polambadi, Seed Village and Vermicompost programmes.

Agro-Seva Kendra's

361 Agro-Seva Kendra's are opened to serve the farming community during the year and another 40 Kendras have been sanctioned in various districts.

Rythu Polallo Sastravethalu: 2 to 3 Scientists were deployed for each Assistant Director of Agriculture (ADA) Division to visit farmers fields and diagnose field problems encountered by farmers and give suitable recommendations then and there for enhancing the productivity and growing environment friendly and is established healthy crops. Thus there will be a direct link between Extension Functionaries, Farmers and Scientists through this programme. The lab to land technology is disseminated fastly through this Programme. 

Preparation of Village Action Plan

The planning process for deciding on a suitable cropping pattern and the extent was organized on the basis of 327 farming situations bifurcated from the 7 Agro climatic zones in order to consider the local variations in terms of soil, Irrigation, land use potentials / problems. The Mandal Agriculture Officers (MAOs) later prepared village level action plans by physical verification and benchmarking the village status in terms of soils, irrigation, seeds and other inputs etc. These Village Action Plans were computerized with the help of Centre for Good Governance (CGG). These plans were successively compiled at mandal, district and state level. Thus the crop production plan, input requirement etc. were generated from grass root level with a bottom-up approach to arrive at a plan of greater accuracy.

Special Notes for reference to posted by Naik

Gender Cell

Table 5.7

Support Mechanism









Vermicompost units are being







Indents placed and supply awaited

Farm Implements



Being obtained

With the objective of promoting women participation in Agriculture Development, a Gender Cell with multifarious activities is established and functioning at the

 Commissionerate of Agriculture. The achievements of the Gender Cell in Farm Empowerment Programme during Kharif 2006-07 are shown above in Table 5.7.


Establishment of District Soil Testing Laboratories (STLs) under Single Window Diagnostic Scheme

Nineteen District STLs are established in the districts where the notified labs are not existing by incurring expenditure of Rs.30, 63,335/-.  

An amount of Rs.9.50 lakhs was incurred towards recurring expenditure of these (19) labs. These labs will take up analysis of all the seed samples other than law enforcement samples. Accordingly, farmer, dealer, producer or any person interested to know the status of seed lots may able to analyse the seed lot by paying Rs.50/-

Till date, 257 seed samples are received by these labs under service & paid categories.

Functioning of DNA Fingerprinting Lab 

To meet the challenge of regulating genetic purity in the varieties, hybrids and genetically modified seed, A.P State Government taken up an initiative to establish DNA Fingerprinting lab at SAMETI, Old Malakpet, Hyderabad, first time in the country to expedite the genetic purity result in a week's time with high degree precision.

Prime Minister's Package

Table 5.8

Physical and Financial components under the Scheme





(Rs. Crores)

Participatory Watershed Project

1440 Watersheds


Check dams

24000 Nos.


Water Harvesting Structures(Farm Ponds)

38400 Nos.


Seed Replacement

24.29 lakh qtls


Extension Services (ATMA)

8 Districts.





Govt. of India has sanctioned an amount of Rs.9,650.55 crores towards rehabilitation of farmers in 16 selected districts of A.P. in order to curtail the suicide menace by distressed farmers.

The schemes covered under Department of Agriculture along with the physical and financial components are shown in Table 5.8.

* * *


5.2 The Department of Cooperation is mainly to administer Cooperative Laws, governing the Cooperative Societies. The year 2005 was celebrated as 100th year of Co-operative Movement through out the Country. Further, every year Co-operative week is being celebrated starting from November 14th, to embark on creating proper understanding of the co-operatives duly highlighting the achievements and thus finally to winning their favour, which ultimately promotes the cooperative movement. This is expected to be achieved with the understanding of various activities.

This year, the 53rd All India Co-operative Week was celebrated from 14th to 20th November 2006. As a part of this program, seminars have been organized on important issues. Profile of Co-operative societies in the state is shown in Annexure 5.16.

Rural Credit Cooperatives:

The Rural Credit Cooperative structure at present is 3 tier with Andhra Pradesh State Cooperative Bank at the Apex Level, District Cooperative Central Banks (DCCBs) at the District level and Primary Agricultural Credit Cooperatives at the village level. A.P. State Cooperative Bank has provided Rs.2,271.62 Crores (Kharif Rs.1,353.52 Crores and Rabi Rs.918.10 Crores) as production credit to the farmers through the Primaries and Central Cooperatives in 2004-05, Kisan Credit Cards have been issued to 41.02 lakh farmer members of the PACS and investment credit disbursed in the same year for Rs.195.61 Crores for minor irrigation, drip irrigation, farm mechanization, dairy etc. The total deposits mobilized by APCOB and DCCBs are Rs.4,087.27 Crores as on November, 2005. Relief to farmers affected by drought and other natural disasters has been provided. The long pending reorganization of PACS has been completed for making them viable based on the recommendations of the taskforce headed by Prof. Vaidyanathan constituted for suggesting on the reorganization of Cooperative Societies. The PACS have now been reorganized from 4,465 to 2,940.

Cooperative Tribunals:

Two Cooperative Tribunals were constituted at Hyderabad and Vijayawada during 1993 and two more at Warangal and Visakhapatnam during 2003 with appellate jurisdiction over the orders passed under A.P.C.S. Act and original jurisdiction was AP MACS Act, 1995 to render speedy and effective justice to the affected parties. There are 1,439 cases pending disposal.


A separate Audit Wing headed by Chief Auditor is functioning for causing Audit of Societies. Every society is responsible for maintaining accounts and is required to get their accounts audited every year. The audit shall be completed within a period of 6 months from the close of cooperative year and audit certificate shall be issued before the end of the succeeding cooperative year.

Heads of concerned Departments are designated as "Functional Registrars" and conferred with the powers of Registrar of Cooperative Societies on the Cooperatives that fall within their jurisdiction.

Marketing Cooperative Societies:

There are 22 District Cooperative Marketing Societies, which undertake procurement of agricultural produce to enable the agriculturists to get the minimum administered prices for their produce. They also supply fertilizers, pesticides and consumer goods to farmers.


MARKFED was established in 1957 as apex organization for the Cooperative Marketing Societies supplying agricultural inputs like fertilizers, gypsum, etc. The total turnover of all the District Cooperative Marketing Societies during 2005-06 was Rs.72.68 crores, whereas the turnover of APMARKFED was Rs.248 crores.

A.P. State Cooperative Union:

To improve and update the knowledge of the Cooperative employees, elected office bearers of the societies, and the members of the societies, the Department provides training through Institute of Cooperative Management (ICM) at Rajendranagar and A.P. State Cooperative Union at Hyderabad. There are 6 other Cooperative Training Centers (CTCs) working under the supervision of A.P. State Cooperative Union to provide education and training in Cooperatives. A monthly magazine by name "Sahakara Samacharam" is being published by the Cooperative Union to ensure the requisite publicity and propaganda of Cooperative principles and Cooperative movement.

A.P. Rural Irrigation Cooperative Corporation:

The A.P. Rural Irrigation Cooperative Corporation Ltd., Hyderabad was registered in 1981 to serve the objective of undertaking drilling of in well bores for small and marginal farmers belonging to SC, ST and other weaker sections and to augment irrigation facilities. Since 1995-96 the federation had diversified its activities such as drilling of 6-½ surfaces bore wells.

Rural Electrical Cooperative Societies:

Nine Rural Cooperative Electrical Societies are operating in 52 Mandals, covering 1,163 villages in the State. Out of the above, 5 societies have been liquidated by the Public Enterprises Department. The working 4 Rural Electrical Cooperative societies are under the Chairmanship of official Person-In-Charge / Joint Collector of the concerned District. These societies purchase electricity in bulk from A.P. TRANSCO and A.P. GENCO and distribute to agricultural and domestic consumers in its area of operation. The total number of connections under operation is 7,06,427.


Integrated Co-operative Development Project (ICDP):

The National Co-operative Development Corporation (NCDC), New Delhi has envisaged providing infrastructure facilities like godown, storage facilities, etc. for the societies for development of agricultural and allied sectors through ICDP. This project is under implementation since 1989 in A.P. This project already covered 6 districts viz., East Godavari, Nizamabad Phase-I, Krishna, Kurnool, Nalgonda and Chittoor and now under implementation in Guntur, Nizamabad Phase-II, Visakhapatnam, Medak, Warangal and Nellore. NCDC approved implementation plans further in 9 districts; Srikakulam, Vizianagaram, West Godavari, Kadapa, Mahaboobnagar, Anantapur, Adilabad, Karimnagar and Ranga Reddy districts.

Disbursements 2005-06 Short Term (Crop) Loans:

An amount of Rs.1,786.50 Crores had been disbursed by the DCCBs and GCC during the Kharif, 2005 season as against the target of Rs.2,000 Crores, attaining 89.33% of achieving the target fixed. During Kharif, 2004 season an amount of Rs.1,353.52 Crores was disbursed. Achievement during Kharif, 2005 over previous season is 32 percent. Unfulfilled portion of the target for 2005-06 is to be made good during the Rabi, 2005-06 season, so as to achieve the annual target of Rs.2,860 Crores under crop loans for 2005-06.

Long Term Loans:

Loaning Programme 2005-06: 

APCOB entrusted a loaning programme of Rs.460.50 Crores for disbursement of Long Term credit loans, including for Self Help Groups (SHGs) and Rythu Mitra Groups (RMGs) for the year 2005-06. Loans to the tune of Rs.57.29 Crores have been disbursed up to the end of October 2005 for various purposes like Minor Irrigation, Farm mechanization, Dairy, Horticulture, A.P.Micro Irrigation Project, Fisheries etc.

Weavers Finance:  

i.        Weavers finance through DCCBs:

APCOB sanctioned a limit of Rs.52.06 Crores to DCCBs for financing the working capital requirement of Primary Weavers Co-operative Societies for production and marketing of cloth (Cotton PWCS-Rs.36.30 Crores + Silk PWCSRs.15.76 Crores).

ii.      Finance to APCO:

APCOB has extended direct finance to APCO to an extent of Rs.50.00 Crores for procurement and marketing of cloth and for procurement and supply of yarn. An amount of Rs.48.50 Crores is sanctioned towards Yarn Credit.

Other Non-Agriculture Loans:

i.        Loans to DCCBs:

APCOB provided loans to a tune of Rs.75.33 Lakhs under Non-Farm Sector (NFS) and Rs.34.11 Lakhs under Rural Housing Scheme (RHS) during the year 2005-06.

ii.      Finance to Sugar Factories:

APCOB is extending finance to Sugar Factories and has sanctioned pledge limits to the tune of Rs.285 Crores to (11) Co-operative Sugar Factories in the State.

* * *


5.3 Andhra Pradesh with its bountiful natural features and favourable policy initiatives deserves prime attention and efforts to carry the sector in the right direction.  Needless to say, the potential for the sector in the state is immense and provides the right platform for working towards the objectives envisaged by Government of Andhra Pradesh.

Horticulture is a significant contributor to the economy for its encompassing benefits not only in the agriculture sector per se but for its wider applications and benefits in improving the rural livelihood through improved nutrition, sustainable farming, employment generation, etc. The sector is a critical component in the envisaged Evergreen Revolution.

Horticulture crops cover a wide variety of fruits, vegetables, spices, medicinal & aromatic plants, floriculture, mushrooms, plantation crops and oil palm etc.

Table 5.9

Horticulture Crops



 in ha.

Production in Mt.







Plantation Crops






Tuber Crops



Flowers (Loose Flowers)



Medicinal and Aromatic Plants



Cut Flowers





14386934 and 1202 Million coconuts& 88.50 Lakh Nos cut flowers

Source: - Horticulture Department

  • Provide a remunerative means for diversification of land use for improving productivity and returns
  • Provides nutritional security
  • Increases employment opportunities
  • Provide raw material for growing agro – processing industries
  • Earns valuable foreign exchange.

Horticulture development is one of the thrust areas for Government of Andhra Pradesh and number of programmes were implemented resulting in the generation of higher incomes in the rural areas, improving the quality of life in villages to bridge the gap that exists in access to education, health and other services between rural and urban areas and creates gainful employment opportunities on a self sustaining basis.

Andhra Pradesh Ranks 1st in area and 2nd in production under total fruits and Ranks 1st in production and 3rd in area under total spices.

Crop-wise, Andhra Pradesh Ranks 1st in production of mango, mosambi, lime, papaya, chillies, turmeric and oil palm, 2nd in tomato, and coriander, 3rd in pomegranate, 4th in tapioca, bendi and grapes, 5th in banana, sapota and onion. (National Horticulture Board data base 2005).

The area under Horticulture has increased from 3.70 lakh ha. during 1982 to 16.49 lakh ha. by 2005-06. Details of area and production are shown in Annexure 5.17.

The Horticulture Department was separated from Agricultural Department in the year 1982 and at that time the budget of department was a mere Rs.0.85 crores and the area under Horticulture was only 3.70 lakh ha.

Programmes and Performance during 2006-07 (October 2006)

q To implement different programmes for the development of Horticulture under State Horticulture Mission, State Plan schemes and Andhra Pradesh Micro Irrigation Project (APMIP) an amount of Rs.27,934.89 lakhs is provided for 2006-07.

q The major schemes implemented by the Department of Horticulture and progress as on date (31.10.2006) is as follows:

A.P. Micro Irrigation Project:

q Govt.   of   Andhra   Pradesh has launched the Micro Irrigation Project for encouraging micro irrigation on 3rd November 2003 for conservation of precious ground water resources and utilization of less power. The objective of the project is for effective water management (water saving and water use efficiency) in the backdrop of continuous droughts. The total project is estimated with an outlay of Rs.1,250 crores to cover an area of 2.50 lakh ha.

q During 2006-07 an area of 33047 ha. is brought under drip/sprinkler irrigation as against the target of 1.20 lakh ha. (upto end of October 2006)

Development of Fruits:

q A large number of tropical and sub-tropical fruits like mango, citrus, banana, guava etc. are grown in the state. The scheme is implemented to step up the production & productivity of fruit crops, providing elite plant material, to improve the quality and productivity of banana by encouraging tissue culture banana cultivation, to create awareness / educating the farmers on new technologies evolved in fruit crop cultivation etc. During the year (Up to the end of October 2006) an area of 23,990 ha. is covered as against target of 30,271 ha. under different fruit crops.


q One of the major issues which needs to be addressed immediately is resurrecting the area now occupied by unthrifty plantations of seedlings origin.  Hence cultivation of Cashew is being encouraged on a large scale with high yielding grafts and strains / selections.  Cashew is a dollar-earning crop. Hence the cashew cultivation is promoted in an area of 1,580 ha., as against a target of 2,311 Ha.


q There is huge requirement of cocoa by the Chocolate Industry. There are also fluctuations in market prices in coconut due to cyclones and eriophyid mite attack. Hence, there is a need to encourage biodiversity in Coconut gardens through multiple cropping with cocoa. The strategy is to expand the area under cocoa into the non-traditional areas i.e. irrigated coconut farms for increased income levels to growers through increased land productivity (cocoa output is incremental, being an inter crop). So far (Up to the end of October 2006) an area of 891 ha. is covered as against target of 2,250 ha.


q Coconut palm, a versatile tree forms an important component in the socio-economic and cultural life of every household. The coconut is one of the important crops in our state.

q The Department of Horticulture is conducting awareness programmes on crop diversification, inter cropping and promotion of vermicomposting etc.,

q So far (Up to the end of October 2006) an area of 245 ha, 68 D Plots and 28 Vermi compost units covered.

Control of Eriophyid mite damage in coastal districts:

q In Andhra Pradesh, Coconut crop is being cultivated in an area of 1.05 lakh hectares spread out in all coastal districts.

q Almost all coconut palms are infected by eriophyid mite resulting in drastic reduction in yields and marketable value.

q Hence the control of eriophyid mite is being taken up by recommending the adoption of technologies i.e., root feeding with azadirachtin 1% formulation and organic culture for the management of eriophyid mite.

q An amount of Rs 755.78 lakhs has been provided during 2006-07 for pending payments of control of eriophyid mite scheme.

Vegetable Development:

q Vegetables play a crucial role in making available adequate quantity of nutrition in the human diet. The per capita availability is less as against the prescribed requirement of 200 gms. per person per day.

q In order to increase availability of vegetables, the Department of Horticulture is supplying hybrid vegetable seed besides organizing training progrmmes to the farmers. Distribution of hybrid seeds is gaining momentum in enriching the vegetable production/industry. There is a need to sensitize the issue and more popularize the use of hybrid seed for higher productivity and production.  So far (Up to the end of October 2006) hybrid vegetable seed is supplied to cover an area of 14,875 ha. and 344 "D" Plots.


q Andhra Pradesh occupies 1st rank in Chillies and Turmeric in area, production and productivity. Considerable increase in productivity of spices has been reported in research stations.  The need of the hour is effective transfer of technology to the progressive farmers. Under the scheme, it is proposed to supply quality planting materials and other post harvest infrastructure requirements to reduce the post harvest losses. So far (Up to the end of October 2006) an area of 7,435 ha. has been covered.

Commercial Floriculture:

q Floriculture sector has been identified as most focused segment of Horticulture. There is much more income to the farmers from flower cultivation due to growing demand for flowers in domestic and export market beside generating employment.

q During 2006-07, (Up to the end of October 2006) 1,205 ha. were covered under loose flowers cultivation . Under green houses, 7,480 Sq mts were supplied for production of high value flowers like carnations, gerbera, anthurium, etc. under controlled conditions with an objective to explore the export potential.

Landscape and Ornamental Gardening:

q Development of model landscape garden to transform the urban environment into pollution free and pleasant surroundings. To give a thrust to this activity, an innovative program has been developed by the Horticulture Department. The major programmes under this sector are revitalization of Public Garden. The hard landscape works and the soft landscape activities are under progress.

Leaf / Soil / Water Analysis:

q 1,183 samples were collected, analyzed and recommend corrective measures for application of optimum inputs.

Organic farming/Integrated Pest Management  (IPM)/Integrated Nutrient Management (INM):

q 896 Nos. of vermicompost units were sanctioned and set up including Oilpalm, Coconut and fruit gardens besides encouraging adoption of organic farming practices.

q Under various fruit crops 17,847 ha. were covered so far.

Mushrooms Development:

q Mushrooms are rich in proteins, vitamins and minerals. The oyster mushroom and paddy straw mushroom are cultivated in the un-organized sector and is in need of seed/spawn material. The Department of Horticulture has set up 6 Nos. mushroom labs in the state and they will produce and supply the spawn/seed material to the entrepreneurs. During the year the laboratories are strengthened with additional equipment with an estimated cost of Rs.2.00 lakhs and 1,499 kgs. of spawn was supplied as against 7000 kgs target. 170 trainings were organized as against 294 trainings proposed during 2006-07 (Up to the end of October 2006).

Popularization of New Technologies

Post Harvest Management (PHM):

q The Post Harvest Management of the horticulture produce is a continuous process with the active participation of the researcher, development worker, extension agencies, farmer and the end users. Unlike the expenditure on crop production which is annual, the expenditure on infrastructural facilities for post harvest operations is a one time capital investment which once undertaken, would give recurring annual returns in the form of savings from post harvest loss reduction.

q The horticulture crops like fruits, vegetables and flowers were highly perishable in nature and requires special attention with respect to their harvesting, handling, packaging, storage and processing operations. Experts say that there are losses to the extent of 10% at field level, 5% at transport, 2% at packing, 9% at storage, 4% at processing i.e. 30% in total. Keeping in view the above facts, the department is concentrating on development of post harvest infrastructure and intensive training programmes on PHM of horticulture crops. 59,198 nos. Plastic crates, 6,087 sprayers, 6,636 poly sheets and 570 harvesters were distributed to the farmers (Up to the end of October 2006).

Oil Palm Development:

q Andhra Pradesh stands 1st in area, production and productivity under Oilpalm. An area of 4.10 lakh ha. has been identified as the potential area for oilpalm cultivation in 11 districts i.e. 9 coastal districts, Chittoor in Rayalaseema region and Khammam in Telengana region.  In the above 11 districts 322 mandals have been identified as potential areas and out of which 266 mandals were allotted as factory zone to 13 public / private entrepreneurs for establishment of processing units.  An area of 53,540 ha. has been covered under oilpalm (upto October 2006). Under the project, assistance is provided towards plant material, cultivation, micro irrigation and inter crops besides organizing training programmes.

q Two oil palm seed gardens were established in the state, one by Department of Horticulture and another in private sector. The seeds produced at seed garden under the technical guidance of National Research Centre (NRC) oilpalm, Pedavegi Center in West Godavari district and supplied to oilpalm companies. Out of 13 registered companies, 8 companies have already established their processing units in the factory zones allotted with a processing capacity of 75 tons per hour.  The companies have buy back arrangements for purchase of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB's) from the farmers in the factory zone at the rate fixed by the Government.

q During the year so far (Up to the end of October 2006) an area of 6,902 ha. has been covered, 72 vermicompost units were established, 5 trainings were organized.

Agri Export Zones (AEZ):

q Govt. of Andhra Pradesh and Govt. of India jointly has set up 4 Agri. Export Zones in the State.  The Horticulture Development Agency is the nodal agency for Agri. Export Zones, Hyderabad (Fresh Mango & Grapes in the district of Ranga Reddy, Medak, Mahabubnagar & Hyderabad), Vijayawada (Mango-Krishna District) and Gherkins in the districts of Mahabubnagar, Ranga Reddy, Medak, Warangal, Anantapur and Nalgonda.

q The Andhra Pradesh Industrial Infrastructure Corporation (APIIC) is the nodal agency for Agri. Export Zone, Chittoor (Mango pulp and fresh & Processed vegetables - Chittooor district) and project proposal for 5th Agri Export Zone was finalized to setup in Kadapa for Mango, Krishnapuram Onion.  The objective of Agri. Export Zone is to boost exports and encourage private investment.  So far, Rs.19.46 crores of Grapes, Rs.8.377 crores Mango fresh fruits, Rs.99.00 crores Chillies, Rs.78.37 crores Gherkins, Rs.300.10 crores Mango Pulp, Rs.100.00 crores Pomegrante, Rs.156.13 crores Fresh & Processed Vegetables, Rs. 13.17 crores Guava Pulp, Rs.5.00 crores Pineapple Pulp and Rs.25.75 crores K.P. Onion were exported. Details are shown in Annexure 5.18.

Information Technology and Data Management:

q Information Technology is the key to all round economic development for effective communication. The department is connected to APSWAN and receiving data online through dialup network from district officer/offices.  The Department has taken up developed software packages for compiling area and production of horticulture crops, list of seed supplying agencies, list of drip & sprinkler manufacturing units, list of cold storage, processing units, etc.

Horticulture Training Institute:

q The Andhra Pradesh Horticulture Training Institute was established in the year 2002 as there is need to impart the knowledge new technologies / innovations to the stake holders (farmers, extension officers, exporters & processors) which is identified as one of the critical input for growth of horticulture sector in the state. The objectives are to identify the training needs of the department, impart in-service training to the extension staff & progressive horticulture farmers and to provide professional training on value added ornamental horticulture. During the year up to the end of October 2006, 219 training programmes were conducted. The department is also conducting gardeners training course certificate.

Food Processing Policy:

q Vide G.O.Ms. No.55, dt.5-3-2004 of Industries and Commerce (C&EX) Department Government issued orders declaring the Department of Industries as the nodal agency to administer the scheme.

National Horticulture Mission - State Horticulture Mission (SHM):

The Scheme on HRD and Tribal Areas and Programmes under Macro Management will be subsumed under National horticulture Mission (NHM).

A.          Sectors:

q Research

q Production and productivity

q Post harvest management

q Marketing / TSG

B.           Focus districts:

I.       Orginal Districts: (12 Nos)

1. Srikakulam 2. West Godavari 3. Guntur 4. Prakasam 5. Kadapa 6. Ananthapur 7. Kurnool 8. Mahabubnagar 9. Ranga Reddy 10. Nizamabad 11. Khammam 12. Nalgonda

II.   Additional Districts: (6 Nos)

1.      Nellore 2. Chittoor 3. Warangal 4. Karimnagar 5. Adilabad 6. Medak

III. Total districts covered under SHM - (18/23 Nos)

C.    Focus Crops:

1. Mango 2. Sweet Orange 3. Sapota 4. Pomegranate 5. Banana           6. Papaya 7. Cashew 8. Loose Flowers 9. Coriander 10. Turmeric.

D.    Activities:

1.            Area Expansion 2. Rejuvenation/Replacement of senile orchards 3. IPM/INM 4. Organic Farming 5. Protected cultivation 6. HRD 7. PHM 8. Technology dissemination through demonstration.

* * *


5.4 Animal Husbandry is one of the rapidly expanding sector playing a significant role in the rural economy by providing gainful employment to a large number of small/marginal farmers and agricultur­al labourers and raising their economic status.  The economic support programs like distribution of Milch animals, sheep and poultry units have come to the rescue of the beneficiaries particularly Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and economically backward sections of the society. 

The activities of the Animal Husbandry Department have been oriented towards health of livestock and increased production of milk, meat and eggs and to provide adequate bullock power for agricultural operations.  The schemes of the Animal Husbandry Department have been formulated in pursuance to the well-laid National policies to improve the Livestock production, to fight protein hunger and to improve nutri­tional standards of human population and also provide technical sup­port for the maintenance and improvement of livestock. Thus, Animal Husbandry Department has been rendering the services to all the sections of people, in particular weaker sections of society and playing a vital role in the rural development by generat­ing additional source of income and employment and by protecting their valuable livestock. Livestock population from 1956 to 2003 (Quinquennial Livestock Census) is shown in Annexure 5.19.

Salient Features:

During 2005-06:

(i)Mass vaccination against Foot and Mouth disease with Govt. of India assistance in Chittoor, Ananthapur, Ranga Reddy and Medak districts to capitalize export market.

(ii)To modernize Animal Vaccine production and Disease Diagnostic Units, the Government has sanctioned an amount of Rs.1,155.09 lakhs under Rural Infrastructure Development Funds with the financial loan assistance from the NABARD.

(iii)Establishing 15 Mobile Veterinary Clinics, in addition to 26 Mobile Veterinary Clinics established already with an outlay of Rs.167.00 Lakhs.

(iv)Supplying life saving drugs to livestock belonging to tribal farmers with an outlay of Rs.37.00 Lakhs.

(v)A programme of deworming the sheep belonging to shepherds of all categories of farmers twice in a year on free of cost basis was taken up during the year, resulting in reduced early mortality and improved growth rate due to increased disease resistance in sheep,

During 2006-07:

(i) Entire sheep population in the State will be insured on 50% subsidy basis.  An amount of Rs.2700 lakhs is allocated for this Scheme.

(ii) Government of India has sanctioned centrally sponsored Livestock Insurance Scheme.  Under this scheme, productive milch cattle will be insured on 50% subsidy basis.  It is being implemented in eight districts of the State.  An amount of Rs.489 lakhs is allocated for this scheme.

(iii) With a view to extending the Veterinary Services to every nook and corner of the State, the Government has sanctioned 80 New Veterinary Institutions viz. 66 Rural Livestock Units, 14 Veterinary Dispensaries and up-gradation of 5 existing Rural Livestock Units to Veterinary Dispensaries.

(iv) Fodder Seed minikits on 75% subsidy basis will be supplied to small and marginal farmers and other weaker sections provided with milch animals under poverty alleviation programmes.  This will enable them to raise sufficient fodder for feeding their high productive livestock.  An amount of Rs.317 lakhs is allocated for the scheme.

(v)The Central Wool Development Board has sanctioned Sheep and Wool Improvement Scheme under integrated wool improvement programme in Andhra Pradesh.  The Board has sanctioned an amount of Rs.153.50 lakhs as grant-in-aid to meet the expenditure for implementation of the scheme covering 5.00 lakh sheep during the year 2006-07.

Animal Health Activities

The Animal Health activities play an important role in the growth of Livestock Industry, since the livestock production programs will not be successful without providing necessary safe guards against hazards of Animal diseases. The department has taken up strengthening of the existing institutions to improve the quality of Animal Health Services by providing facilities for surgery, disease investigation and treatment and therefore Poly Clinics were estab­lished at district headquarters.

To organise effective Animal Health Service, to support the production program and prevention and control of livestock diseases, every mandal has been provided with a veterinary graduate.

Four types of regular institutions viz., 22 Veterinary Polyclinics, 281 Veterinary Hospitals, 1,794 Veterinary Dispensaries and 2,916 Rural Livestock Units are functioning mainly to attend to animal health needs through out the State.  618.41 Lakh cases were treated, 10.94 lakh castrations were done and 839.85 lakh vaccinations were conducted by these institutions during the year 2005-06.  Proper diagnosis of disease is half the treatment. Towards this end 22 Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratories (AHCs) are functioning.  5.36 lakh specimens were examined and 1.15 lakh various other tests were conducted in these centers.   Further 8.49 lakh specimens were also examined in major institutions, where facilities are available for immediate and quick tests of clinical materials. Animal Husbandry Institutions' particulars are shown in Annexure 5.20.

Veterinary Biological Research Institute, Hyderabad

There are two divisions in the Institute, Biological Products Division and Disease Investigation Division.  Each division is functioning under the control of separate Joint Directors.

Biological Products Division


1. To produce different vaccines with proven immunogenicity for livestock and poultry.

2. Large-scale manufacture of vaccines for livestock and poultry.

3. To develop/adopt new techniques in the manufacture of Biologicals in bulk quantities.

4. To boost the economy of the farmer community by protecting the livestock wealth against onslaught of contagious diseases.

5.To boost the economy of the poultry farmers by protecting the poultry against the various contagious poultry diseases.

To prevent the losses of valuable livestock due to various diseases, supply of vaccine to the institutions to protect the livestock is essential. The Veterinary Biological Research institute is the main source in the State for the production of Viral and Biological Vaccines and is producing (9) types of viral and bacterial vaccines.

During the year 2005-06, 490.54 lakh doses of various types of vaccines have been produced by this institute.

Disease Investigation Wing

Control and elimination of disease depends upon prompt and correct diagnosis of the disease. The team of Disease Investigation Officers and subject matter specialists have attended to this impor­tant item of work under the supervision and direction of the Joint Director.


1. Disease diagnosis and investigation of disease conditions among livestock, sheep, goats, canines, pigs, poultry.

2. To collect the epidemiological data of the disease occurrences in the State, analyse the findings and take measures for control and eradication.

3. To attend outbreaks, notifying areas, advising the field staff for intensive follow-up in tackling the disease occurrences and collection of relevant materials for laboratory diagnosis and suggesting measures for the containment of the diseases.

4. Undertaking research problems pertaining to the field problems.

Veterinary Biological Research Unit, Samalkot

In addition to the above, there is a Mini Vaccine Production unit at Samalkot, East Godavari district, which is func­tioning to meet the increasing demands of coastal districts.  During the year 2005-06, 235.24 lakh doses of various types of vaccines have been produced by this institute.

Government Livestock Farms

To support the cattle development activities in the state, for producing pedigree bulls, the department has established Cattle Breeding Farms at suitable places in the State.

At present 9 Farms and one Fodder Seed Multiplication Farm are functioning under the control of this department. The details of livestock maintained by the 9 Government Livestock Farms are shown in Table 5.10.

Table 5.10

Livestock in Government Farms





(up to 30-9-2006)






Cross Breed




Work Cattle

































Grand Total




Source: - Animal Husbandry Department

During the year 2005-06, 82 breeding bulls were supplied to the Frozen Semen Bull Stations/ farmers.

Frozen Semen Bull Stations, District Semen Depots

Livestock Production can be achieved only by practice of utilisation of proper bulls of high genetic value.  To achieve bullock power it is necessary to develop indigenous breeds and introduction of germ plasm of good milch breeds is essential in our local non-descriptive cows and buffaloes for enhancement of milk production.

This objective can only be achieved in a wider area within minimum possible period through Artificial Insemination.  As per the livestock census 2003, Andhra Pradesh has 29.24 lakhs of white and 59.22 lakhs of buffalo breedable population. This raw material is used for crossbreeding by exotic cattle like Jersey and Holstein Friesian (H.F.) in case of white cattle and Murrah in case of buffaloes for upgrading to increase the production potential in progeny.

Frozen Semen Technology has been extended throughout the State to effect rapid improvement in Progeny born to these breedable population by using superior germ plasm and also improving the feeding and managemental practices by propagating improved varieties of feed and fodder.

Frozen Semen Technology in the State has also sufficient improvement in the production of frozen semen, establishing Young Bull Training Centres, establishment of Liquid Nitrogen Plants, District Frozen Semen Depots.  The Regional Artificial Insemination Training Centres are being continued to train the field personal in handling of frozen semen in the field.

Presently there are 4,834 Departmental Frozen Semen Centres in Animal Husbandry Department, out of them 2,885 are having mobile facility.  In addition there are 46 Other Departmental Centres, 1,710 Private Artificial Insemination Practitioners (Gopalamitras), 109 centres under Bharatiya Agro Industries Foundation (BAIF), 196 Centres under Andhra Pradesh Dairy Development Cooperative Federation, and 6 Other Centres, in total 6,901 Centres are functioning for which frozen semen and Liquid Nitrogen is being supplied.

Frozen Semen Bull Stations

Table 5.11

Frozen Semen Bull Stations

Item of Work




(up to 30-9-2006)

No.  of Bulls Stationed

a) Exotic/ Crossbred




b) Indigenous




c) Murrah








Quantity of Frozen Semen Produced (Lakh Doses)

a) Exotic/ Crossbred




b) Indigenous




c) Murrah








Source: - Animal Husbandry Department

To produce required Frozen Semen for the state, four Frozen Semen Bull Stations one each at Vizag, Nandyal, Banavasi and Karimna­gar are functioning during the year under report. These stations are maintaining 247 breeding bulls of known pedigree for production of Frozen Semen. In the state as on today 6853 Artificial insemination Centers are functioning during the year 2005-06.

Salient features of work turned out by the Frozen Semen Bull Stations during the year 2005-06 and 2006-07 (up to 30-9-2006) with comparative figures of the previous year are shown in Table 5.11.

Centralized Semen Collection Centers and District Frozen Semen Depots

21 District Frozen Semen Depots are functioning during the year under report.  These Depots are catering to the needs of the Frozen Semen and Liquid Nitrogen to 6,853 Artificial Inseminations Centers spread all over the State.       

Table 5.12

Frozen Semen and Inseminations at District Depots

Item of Work




(up to 30-9-2006

Quantity of Frozen Semen Supplied (Lakh Doses)

a) Exotic




b) Indigenous




c) Murrah








No. of Artificial Inseminations Done

a) Exotic/ Crossbred




b) Indigenous




c) Murrah








Deptl. Artificial Insemination Centers Covered




Source: - Animal Husbandry Department

Liquid Nitrogen Plants

There are 12 Liquid Nitrogen Plants.  As the production cost of Liquid Nitrogen with the plants is very high, the Liquid Nitrogen is being procured from outside source.  These plants are being used as standby plants to meet emergency requirements. During the year 14.20 lakh liters of Liquid Nitrogen worth Rs.81.51 lakhs has been purchased.

Andhra Pradesh Livestock Development Agency

Govt. of India has launched a programme of "National Project on Cattle and Buffalo Breeding" in the country and formulated certain basic guidelines to restructure the entire cattle and buffaloes breeding programme with state infrastructure, in order to have maximum coverage and effectiveness of Artificial Insemination.  Government of India sanctioned an amount to implement this programme, Andhra Pradesh Livestock Development (APLDA) has been established and started functioning from April 2000.

Govt. of India has sanctioned Rs.40.03 crores for implementing the programme in five years. i.e. From 2001 to 2004-05 and released Rs. 39.80 crores till the end of the year 2005-06.


1. The overall objective is to promote the core activity of improving productivity of cattle in the state through improved animal breeding services and effective transfer of new technologies.

2.The Primary objective is to improve animal productivity, by providing door-step AI services and there by increasing milk production.

3.To aid, advice, assist in any manner including research for development of Livestock and promote interests of farmers.

4.To asses the breeding needs, identify, train and position appropriately the A.I Technicians duly ensuring effective services at farmer's door-step.

5.To build data bank and disseminate information pertaining to breeding operations, disease incidence/cattle development activities including progeny evaluation.

Feed and Fodder Development       

High yielding and nutritious fodder are essential for scien­tific and economic management of livestock particularly to cross­breeds.  It is endeavor of the department to popularize and propagate the high yielding fodder crops with the farmers on available arable and non-arable land, as it is essential for the scientific feeding of the livestock for the increased productivity of milk and mutton.  To intensify the activity, fodder slips, and improved varieties of fodder and pasture seed has been supplied to the farmers with most encourag­ing results.

The activities under the fodder development during the year 2005-06 are shown in Table 5.13.

Table 5.13

Fodder Development, 2005-06



Area Brought Under Fodder Cultivation (In Lakh Acres)


Qty. of Fodder Seed Supplied    (Mts.)


No. of Minikits Distributed                               


No. of Exotic Grass Slips Supplied to the Farmers (Lakh No.)


Source: - Animal Husbandry Department

To support the fodder development activity, the Fodder Seed Multiplication farm at Reddypalli is functioning, during the year 2005-06, 7.935 Mts of seed has been produced.  63.30 lakh fodder slips were supplied to the institutions and farmers.

Sheep Development

Sheep rearing plays an important role in the national econo­my.  It provides gainful employment and income to the weaker sections especially the rural poor. Scientific breeding is being advocated in the sheep farms for the production of breeding rams with improved quality of mutton and wool. The rams are distributed to interested breeders for upgrading their local sheep flocks for improved production both quali­ty and quantity.

To achieve the objective, 2 Sheep Farms, 1 Ram Multiplica­tion Farm and 2 Sheep Units are functioning during the year under report. The rams are farms produce Pedigree rams for distribution to the sheep breeders to upgrade their stock for improved quality of meat and increased meat production.

During the year under report, these farms and units produced 375 Ram Lambs, 349 Ewe Lambs of superior quality and disposed 323 Rams, 1 Ewe, 64 lambs, 1 Hogget and 57 young stock.    

11 Intensive Sheep Development Projects covering the entire State are also functioning, and attending extension activities as breeding, effective health coverage and training to Sheep Breeders in scientific management. 

Piggery Development

Pig farming has an important role in improving the Socio-Economic status of sizable population of the weaker sections of the society.

To make available "Pork" at a reasonable price, Piggery development has been taken up in Andhra Pradesh under various programs like ITDA, IRDP and SC Action Plan etc., as the pig is a profile breeder with heavy litter size, short gestation period, and good feed conversion efficiency.

Piggery plays an important role in meeting the demands of meat in rural as well as urban areas.  In order to make available the required pedigree Male and Female breeding stock to the beneficiaries under various schemes, 4 pig breeding stations are functioning in the state.

Piggery Development Project, Visakhapatnam

The project rendering necessary technical assistance to the beneficiaries in maintenance of fattening units, up- gradation of Desi Pigs, supply of premixed feed, marketing of finished Pork and Pork products in the districts of Visakhapatnam, Vizianagaram, Srikakulam besides exercising technical control over the 4 pig breeding stations and promotion of Pork sales in the state.  38 pork booths are functioning in the districts of Visakhapatnam, East Godavari, Vizianagaram, West Godavari, Krishna and Srikakulam and the sales of pork and pork products are continued.

The pork and pork products produced at this project is being marketed through 38 meat shops in six districts of Visakhapatnam, Vizianagaram, Srikakulam, East Godavari, West Godavari and Krishna. 

Pig Fattening Scheme (By back system)

The District S.C. Society has established a Piggery Complex at Krishnapuram a suburb of Visakhapatnam with permanent sheds to rehabilitate Scheduled Caste people through Pig Fattening Scheme and a total number of 25 families are provided with L.W.Y weaners and fat pigs produced by them were taken back after attaining 70 to 80 kgs. live weight and each beneficiary is getting an amount of Rs.3,000/- to Rs.4,000/- p.m. as remuneration and hence provided gainful employment to the S.C. People.

Piggery Development Scheme

Piggery Development Scheme, Srikakulam acts as a liaison Office between District Rural Development Agency, District Scheduled Caste Society, Bankers, Piggery Development Project, Visakhapatnam and the Integrated Rural Development Agency for planning and implementation of Piggery development scheme, marketing of cross breeds and to train Piggery beneficiaries.                                                        

Poultry Development

Poultry farming in Andhra Pradesh is most dynamic and fastest growing segment of Agriculture Sector.  The State occupies first rank in egg production and broiler production in the Country with an annual production of 1,645 crores eggs.

Centrally Sponsored Scheme assistance to State Poultry Farm:

Govt. of India have introduced a Central Sponsored Scheme, "Assistance to State Poultry Farm" in Andhra Pradesh during the year 2004-05 on 80:20 Centre to State basis for maintaining breeding stock of low input technology.  Accordingly as per the guidelines of Govt. of India, the Animal Husbandry Department has proposed to establish a low input technology, breeding stock in the premises of Government Livestock Farm, Mamnoor, Warangal with total cost of the project i.e. Rs.129.05 lakhs.  Towards State's share of 20% of the project cost the existing physical infrastructure in erstwhile district (Warangal) Poultry Farm, Mamnoor valued Rs. 64.50 lakhs shown in the project.  Whereas Government of India have approved project report and sanctioned an amount of Rs.47.92 lakhs on 80:20 Centre to State share, duly treating the existing land and infrastructure as State Share (20%). This office has submitted the utilisation for the released amount in the month of July 2006.

Human Resource Development

The Training approach in Animal Husbandry Department was given a new impetus and direction.  The Training needs of both Veterinarians and Para-Veterinarians in the Department were identified, training action plans were drawn up and are being implemented.  In order to meet the growing challenges and opportunities, emerging in the livestock sector, the staff of the Animal Husbandry Department needs to be competitive, committed and motivated to provide sound service delivery system. HRD wing in the Directorate is coordinating, monitoring, evaluating and implementing the need-based training Programmes to the staff of the Department, with a view that training is a continuous activity and every employee working in the Department should be exposed for one training course per year.

Table 5.14

Departmental Personnel Trained – 2005-06

Category of Insti-tutions

No.of Vets Trained

No.of ParaVets Trained

No.of Gopalamitras Trained

No.of Ministerial Staff/

Farmers /0thers


























Source: - Animal Husbandry Department

The Animal Husbandry Department has launched three tier training system to meet the training demands of the staff at District, Regional and State level to address area specific needs of livestock and their owners. The Department has restructured its training Programmes for Veterinarians and Para Veterinarians at (3) State Level, (10) Regional Level and 22 District Level Training Centres.

Table 5.14 shows the abstract of number of departmental personnel trained at the Departmental Training Centres during the year 2005-06.

Table 5.15 presents the abstract of number of departmental personnel trained at the Departmental Training Centres during the year 2006-07 (up to 30-09-2006).

Table 5.15

Departmental Personnel Trained – 2006-07 (upto Sept. 2006)

Category of Institu-tions

Vets Trained

Para-Vets Trained

Gopala-mitras Trained

Ministe-rial Staff/

Farmers /0thers



























Source: - Animal Husbandry Department

Drought Relief Measures:

Government has sanctioned an amount of Rs.1,500 lakhs for fodder seed, cattle feed and emergency medicines for organization of cattle camps for the year 2005-06.

Fodder Seed Procurement and Fodder Production:

To meet the fodder deficit, 2,035 tonnes of fodder seed has been supplied to cover an area of 1.02 lakh acres and produced 2.69 lakh tonnes of Fodder by the farmers in the drought affected districts.

Organization of Cattle Camps

·   63 Cattle camps were organized in the districts of Chittoor, Prakasam, Mahaboobnagar, Karimnagar, Warangal, Medak, and Nalgonda.

·   29,784 tones of dry fodder have been supplied by trucks and trains to these camps.  A.P. Agro Industrial Development Corporation has organized the supply of fodder through trains.

·   As per the demand from the farmers and public representatives, cattle camps were continued in certain districts till 25-7-2005.

·   Every day on an average 1.62 lakh animals were gathered in the camps.

The production estimates of milk, eggs and meat based on integrated sample survey in the state from 1980-81 to 2005-06 are given in Annexure 5.21.



5.5   Objectives: Important Objectives of the Department of Fisheries are as follows:

·   Develop Fisheries value chain and boost exports.

·   Promote investment to create infrastructure.

·   Ensure sustainable development.

·   Setup institutions to build skills.

·   Promote welfare of fishers.

Table 5.16

Fish & Prawn Production

(Lakh Tonnes)





Brackish Water Shrimp







FW Prawn





































(upto Oct, 06)







Source: - Fisheries Department



Significant contribution:

v  The quantity of fish/ prawn produced is 8.91 lakh tonnes and Value is Rs.6,929 Crores (2005-06).

v  The state is contributing about Rs.2,500 Crores by way of marine exports, which is nearly 40% of the marine exports from India.

All India Ranking:

v  AP ranks First in Brackish water shrimp production, First in Fresh water prawn production, Second in Fresh water fish production, Second in total value of fish/prawn produced and Fifth in Marine fish production.

Fish/ Prawn Production (Resource-wise):

v  8.91 lakh tonnes of Fish / Prawn production was achieved during 2005-06 as against the achievement of 8.52 lakh tonnes during 2004-05.

v  It is targeted to produce 9.00 lakh tonnes of Fish / Prawn during the year 2006-07 and to achieve 10 Lakh tonnes per annum by 2009.

High lights of achievements (2005-06 & Up to October 2006):

v  432 lakhs fish seedlings were stocked in 24 reservoirs at a cost of Rs.421.00 Lakhs.

v  61,000 Houses were sanctioned in the last 2 years at a cost of Rs.214.00 Crores. 29,970 houses are completed.

v  The Aqua Culture Seed (Quality Control) Act was passed in the Assembly in March 2006.

v  7,334 Mechanized and Motorized Boats are benefited under the scheme "Exemption of Sales Tax on HSD Oil" with enhanced limits. Rs. 499.55 Lakhs was spent.

v  Coverage under Group Accident Insurance scheme was increased from 1.30 Lakh fishermen to 2.00 Lakh fishermen. The insurance coverage is Rs.50,000/- in case of death /total disability and Rs.25,000 in case of partial disability.

v  Construction of 15 Fish Landing Centers was taken up at a cost of Rs.12.15 Crores. 8 are completed.

v  Constructed one wholesale fish market at Hyderabad at a cost of Rs.87.00 Lakhs.

v  Modernization of 68 Urban Fish Markets was taken up at a cost of Rs.570 Lakhs. 26 are completed.

v  Fish Ponds, covering 116 Lakh Hectares of area were constructed for fresh water Pisci-culture at a cost of Rs.53.58 lakhs.

v  8 Aqua labs and 4 feed analysis labs were taken up at a cost of Rs.280 Lakhs. (5) Aqua Labs and (4) Feed Analysis Labs are completed.

v  871.60 Lakhs Major carp fry was produced in the Government fish seed farms.

v  Rs.71.00 Lakhs was provided as relief to the fishermen effected in heavy rains / floods in the month of September 2006.

Action Plan 2006-07:

v  Providing subsidy on Sales tax for HSD oil and Development Rebate on HSD oil for 7,334 fishing boats at a cost of Rs.558 Lakhs.


v  Providing 50% subsidy for (200) boats under


v  Motorization of traditional crafts at a cost of Rs.40 lakhs. 

v  Providing 20% subsidy for construction of new fishponds and supply of inputs in 120 Hectares at a cost of Rs.55.20 lakhs.     


New Schemes taken up in 2006-07:

v  Providing 50% subsidy on supply of ice boxes to 2,500 fisherwomen at a cost of Rs.50.00 Lakhs.

v  Stocking of 5 crores fish seed in reservoirs at a cost of Rs. 150 lakhs.

v  Providing 50% subsidy for supply of fish seed to 800 Fishermen Cooperative Societies at a cost of Rs. 100 Lakhs.

v  Providing 50% subsidy on supply of VHF sets to 270 mechanized fishing boats at a cost of Rs. 27 lakh

Special Notes for reference to posted by Naik



New initiatives taken up in 2006-07:

v  A National Level Institute, National Fisheries Development Board has started functioning w.e.f. 9-9-2006 with headquarters at Hyderabad. Two schemes were considered and the National Fisheries Development Board released Rs.3.47 Crores.

v  National Center for Sustainable Coastal Aquaculture (NaCSA) sponsored by Marine Products Export Development Authority, Ministry of Commerce, Govt. of India was setup at Kakinada, East Godavari district.

v  Introduction of semi-culture practices in tanks.


v  Providing subsidy for Fresh Water Aquaculture in 1,600 Hectares area with an outlay of Rs.16.57 Crores under Prime Minister's Special Package for farmers in 16 districts.



Fish and Pawn Production from 1961 to 2006-07 (Upto October 2006) is shown in Annexure 5.22.




5.6 Forests play an important role in moderating the soil mantle, improving soil fertility, purifying the air, arrest soil erosion and in regulating the flow of water in rivers and streams. If these intangible benefits could be monetized the contribution of forests would be stupendous and would far out weight the direct benefits to the fuel wood, timber and other forest produce which we get from forest.

Forest Development activities commenced in a big way, in Andhra Pradesh along with the commencement of the 3rd Five-Year plan only. Forestry programmes involve rising of economic plantations and quick growing species, large areas of mixed deciduous forests of poor quality were cleared and planted with Teak, Eucalyptus and Bamboo and more recently high yielding varieties of Cashew are being planted on a large scale. Area planted with important species during 2004-05 and 2005-06 is shown in Table 5.17.

Table 5.17

Area Planted Under Important Species

(Area in Ha.)



2005-06 (P)













Red Sander



Sandal wood












Avenue Plantation



P: Provisional

Source: - Forest Department

·   Coffee (Arabica Coffee) planting on commercial scale was also undertaken by the Forest Department in the agency forests of Visakhapatnam and East Godavari districts in an area of about 4,012.18 Hects. to improve the economic conditions of the tribals and wean them from the wasteful habit of shifting cultivation.

·   The scheme for Soil conservation in River Valley Project was also taken up from that time in the Machkhand / Sileru basin in Visakhapatnam district and upto 1975 over 7,850 Hects of badly eroded area have been afforested and 43,120 Hects of Agricultural land was treated with various soil conservation measures like contour bunding, bench terracing, gully plugging, stabilization of river banks etc. Now in the year 2006 over 46,389 hects., of area has been afforested and 88,809 Hects., of Agricultural land was treated with various soil conservation measures like contour bunding, bench terracing, gully plugging, stabilization of river banks etc.

·    Forest resource surveys of industrial catchments were undertaken between 1965-75 and most of the important forest zones of the state have been covered under schemes sponsored either by the Government of India or State.

·   Commencing with 1971 season the Abnus leaves trade in Andhra Pradesh (Telangana Region to begin with) was nationalized eliminating the Contractor's agency. As per G.O. M.S. No 43 Dated 10-04-2006 of E.F.S.&T (For III) Dept., the Government have decided to distribute the net revenue to the beedi leaf collectors in proportion to the quantity of beedi leaf collected by them as per wage cards from 2006 beedi leaf season onwards.

·   Andhra Pradesh Forest Development Corporation was established in 1975 to undertake large scale plantation of industrially useful species like Bamboo and Eucalyptus in order to meet the growing demand for wood. Now an extent of 11667.23 Hects., of Eucalyptus, 12897.67 Hects. of Bamboo were raised and maintained by the A.P.F.D.C.

·   The scheme of Drought Prone Area Programme for the districts of Ananthapur and parts of Mahabubnagar, Karnool, Kadapa, Chittoor, Nalagonda and Prakasam was started in 1975 and closed by 1992-93. So far 1337.20 Hects. of area operated, 29.40 of area planted with an expenditure of 187.60 lakhs.

·   A Sanctuary for Black Buck Mahaveera Harina Vanasthali was established in an area of about 1,000 Hects. near Hyderabad. The Prime Minister has specially commanded to the States the need to establish exclusive sanctuaries for Black Buck because it is almost on the verge of extinction. Now the present area of the park is 1,459 Hects.

·   The state has three well developed Zoological parks at Hyderabad, Visakhapatnam and Tirupathi and also five National Parks two at Hyderabad one in Ranga Reddy district, one at Kadapa District and one at Thirupathi (Chittor District). There are 13 deer parks and 22 wild life Sanctuaries in the state.

·   Commencing with the Third Plan, The Nehru Zoological Park was set up at Hyderabad covering an area of 152 Hects.

·   Andhra Pradesh has 63,814 Sq.kms. of Forest area constituting 23.2 percent of the total geographical of the State.  Out of the total forest area of 63,814 Sq.kms., Reserved forest area accounted for 50,478 Sq.Kms., Protected forest forms 12,365 Sq.kms and the rest 971 Sq.kms are unclassified. Out of the total area of 63,814 Sq.kms, the Telangana Region has a forest area of 29,242 Sq.kms. followed by Coastal Andhra 19,563 Sq.kms and Rayalaseema 15,009 Sq.kms. The forest products in the state include Timber, Firewood, Charcoal, Bamboo, beedi leaves etc. The details of value of forest products in the State are given in Annexure 5.23.

·   There are eight major wood based industries in the State. The net use, production capacity, type of raw material used and raw material assured to Forest Department in the state is shown in Annexure 5.24. Income accrued from forestry sector in the State was Rs.63.81 crores in 2001-02 and 83.17 crores in 2002-03, 99.43 crores in 2003-04, 100.94 crores in 2004-05, and 94.54 crores in 2005-06.

·   Under Social Forestry, 47.73 crore seedlings are made available all over the state for planting in 2006 rainy season. So far 36.69 core seedlings were raised over an extent of 1284 Ha.  Out side the Reserve Forest areas and Road Avenue Plantations were raised over a length of 1,261 kms. 5.46 crore kanuga seedling are made available for raising of Bio- diesel plantations during 2006 rainy season. Strategy adopted as a long term measure is to grow 8 to 9 crores of even kanuga seedlings for planting every year by Forest Department through VSS and in Social Forestry through farmers. During this season, 12,700 hects of area was planted.

Community Forestry Management

·   The Concept of people's participation envisages to protect and manage the forests with the active co-operation and support of local communities. The National Forest Policy, 1988, strongly envisages peoples involvement in the development and protection of forest and the Government of India have provided impetus to peoples movement in forest

Table 5.18

Progress of Community forest management


No. of VSS formed

Area         Covered

(Lakh Hect)






















Source: - Forest Department

management by issuing a circular on 1st    June, 1990, in pursuance to the National

Forest Policy, 1988.

Consequent to the formulation of guidelines on participatory management of forests issued by Govt. of India in 1990, the programme of CFM started in the state in the year 1992. However in reality the programme got under way only in 1994. Year-wise progress of implementation of the programme is presented in Table 5.18.   From a mere 133 VSS (Vana Samrakshana Samithi) during 1994-95, it has gone up to 8499 VSS in 2005-06 in the state managing 23.94-lakh hectares of forest area. Around 15.38 lakh people including 7.54 Lakh women and for nearly 7.84 lakh SC/ST beneficiaries have treated about 6.66 lakh hectares of degraded forests through these VSS. All the identified forest fringe villages have been covered under CFM stream. The funds from various sources like World Bank aided Andhra Pradesh Forestry Project, Employment Assurance Scheme and other schemes including Centrally Sponsored Schemes are being utilized for implementation of CFM.

Kolleru Lake                            

Ø  Kolleru Lake is one of the largest fresh water eco systems (Wetland) of international importance recognized under Ramsar convention (Iran 1971) covering 2,25,250 acres upto its +10 ft. contour.  It is formed between the alluvial plains of River Godavari and Krishna due to natural geological formation covering (2) mandals in West Godavari district and (7) mandals in Krishna district.  This Lake is situated nearly 35 kms. away from the coastline. 

Table 5.19

Water spread area of Kolleru Lake




In Acres

In Sq.Kms

+ 10' MSL



+ 7' MSL



+5' MSL



+3' MSL



Source: - Forest Department

Ø    Ecologically it is a wetland eco-system, with a total catchment area of 4763 Sq.Kms. spreading over West Godavari and Krishna districts.  The peak level inflow into the Lake would be of the order of 1,10,000 cusecs. 

Ø    Four rivers namely Budameru, Ramileru, Tammileru and Yerrakaluva and (18) drains and (22) irrigation channels empty out into the Lake and the drain Upputeru is the only outlet to the sea.  The flow in these drains mainly consists of agricultural runoff, storm water runoff, domestic effluents and industrial effluents from large and medium scale industries surrounding the Lake. 

Ø    There are (122) villages in the Lake area, out of which (46) are bed villages and (76) are belt villages.

Ø    The Lake supports a rich biodiversity of aquatic flora and fauna and has a high biomass of planktons, which form the source of food for the birds and other aquatic fauna.  The Kolleru Lake serves as a Sanctuary for the migratory birds and as many as 189 rare and endangered local and migratory birds including Grey Pelicans visit this area.

Ø    The Lake had an abundant resource of fish with an average production of 7,000 metric tones / year.  Due to the eutrophication, caused by the polluting waters, the natural fish population has come down drastically. 

Destruction of the Lake

Ø    Initially agriculture was permitted in Kolleru Lake bed area through a permit system and the Government during 1977-78 has granted pattas in Lake Bed area.  And this has opened the flood gates for encroachments into the bed areas and the advent of aquaculture and pisciculture which proved to be very much successful commercially.  This resulted in large scale conversion of agriculture and fallow lands into fish tanks. 

Ø    All these commercial activities have resulted in pollution of the Kolleru waters.  The discharge of industrial effluents from the paper mills, sugar factories etc., located in Krishna and West Godavari districts and the Municipal waste from the major towns of Vijayawada, Eluru and Gudivada further polluted this Lake.  The pollutants have resulted in silting up of the Lake bed at a faster rate and the water holding capacity of the Lake decreased drastically and this has led to scarcity of drinking water in many of the villages. 

Initiatives to conserve the Lake

Ø    Government have issued preliminary notification of Kolleru Wildlife Sanctuary under section 18 of Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 vide G.O.Ms.No.76, E.F.S.&T (For.III), dept., dt:25.09.1995

Ø    As per the provisions under Section 19 to 25 of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, the District Collectors, West Godavari & Krishna determined the following rights of the people existing within the proposed Kolleru Wildlife Sanctuary.

ü  Right to do traditional fishing.

ü  Traditional Agriculture without using pesticides and chemicals.

ü  Right to use ordinary boats without motor for the movement of the people.

ü  Right of way with existing roads.

ü  Electricity connection shall be given for domestic use and not for aquaculture.

ü  Aquaculture prohibited.

ü  The 'D' Form pattas will be canceled.

Ø  Finally, the Government have issued final notification declaring Kolleru Lake as Kolleru Wildlife Sanctuary under section 26(a) of Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 vide G.O.Ms.No.120, E.F.S&T (For.III) Dept., dt:04.10.1999.

Ø    Aggrieved by the notification of the sanctuary, several Writ Petitions have been filed in the Hon'ble High Court of A.P. challenging the notification. 

Ø    In the background of extensive fish culture by converting the agriculture and fallow areas into compartmentalized fish tanks, the recent cyclone in the month of September and October 2005 caused heavy damage in the district and more than one lakh acres of paddy crop was inundated due to the obstructions caused by the bunds of the illegal fish tanks in the bed area. 

Ø    The extensive disturbance caused due to human activity in the form of fish culture and its ancillary activities resulted in the birds deserting the Lake area.  The disruption in the natural flow of the water into the sea through Upputeru resulted in frequent inundation of the bed areas.           

Ø    Due to stagnation of water at the uplands area, the agricultural fields got inundated and there was an uproar in the Public demanding for the demolition of fish tanks.

Judgment of the Hon'ble Supreme Court

Ø    Aggrieved by the order of the CEC, the Kolleru Food Industries have filed a Writ Petition No.1486 - 1487 before the Hon'ble Supreme Court of India and the Supreme Court in its judgment Dt:10.4.2006 have upheld the directions issued by the CEC.

Ø    As per the direction of the Hon'ble Supreme Court of India, the demolition of the illegal fish tank bunds in Kolleru Wildlife Sanctuary upto +5 contour has been taken up and completed by 15.6.2006.  Totally, 1,776 tanks covering an area of about 44,700 acres in West Godavari and Krishna districts have been demolished.   An amount of Rs.40.00 crores has been sanctioned for demolition of fish tanks and rehabilitation of the locals.  

Ø    With the removal of the encroachments upto +5 contour, the Forest Department in coordination with other sister departments is taking up certain eco-restoration measures to restore the pristine glory of the area. 

ü  Survey and demarcation of the sanctuary

ü  Strengthening and protection of the sanctuary by setting up check posts and continuous patrolling to protect the Lake from poaching and revival of fish culture.

ü  Clearance of the drains to facilitate free flow of water.

ü  Clearance of weeds to promote growth of indigenous aquatic flora.

ü  Planting of indigenous plants to act as roosting and nesting base for the birds.

ü  Restocking of the Lake with indigenous fish species and other aquatic flora and fauna.

ü  Awareness creation and educating the locals through workshops, personal interaction, trainings, broachers, pamphlets, and hoardings.

ü  The Pollution Control Board shall monitor the water quality and implement necessary measures for the treatment of the polluting effluents. 

Initiatives for Eco-restoration

Ø    The Forest Department has submitted scheme to Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India under the conservation of Wetlands for Eco-restoration of Kolleru Lake at an estimated cost of Rs.6.41 crores.  Besides, schemes have also been submitted for the Eco-restoration under 12th Finance Commission and User Charges for Rs.155.00 lakhs and Rs.90.00 lakhs respectively. The Government has already released Rs.90.00 lakhs under User Charges.

Ø    Now the task on hand is the restoration of the Lake through a Multi-disciplinary, Integrated Management Plan for the Kolleru Wildlife Sanctuary to give clear direction to the management on the line of action and implementation of the restoration plan as detailed above.

Ø    This is possible only with the dedicated involvement of Professional Environmental Scientists, Engineers, Hydrologists, Limnologists, Botanists, Microbiologists, Ornithologists, Social Scientists and several others of various disciplines besides the Wildlife Officers.

Ø    In view of the special nature of this Wetland and its importance as a Ramsar Site and particularly when it is threatened under the Montreaux record, it demands the services of a specialized organization to prepare this Multi-disciplinary Integrated Management Plan. 

Ø    This issue was discussed in detail at the State Level Steering Committee on Wetlands on 6.10.2006 and it was decided to call for Expression of Interest from interested organizations.  Accordingly, the notice inviting the Expression of Interest has been called for in the Newspapers before 25.11.2006.  The applications will be processed and restoration work will be grounded.

Ø    The efforts of the Government have yielded rich dividends and it is a feast to the eyes that thousands of birds have already arrived and we need to create a suitable habitat for their nesting, roosting and feeding besides providing pollution free waters in the Lake. 

* * *


5.7    Andhra Pradesh was a mere speck on the sericulture map of India, producing only around 300 tonnes of mulberry silk cocoons in 1975. The Sericulture industry grew leaps and bounds and by the year 1981 A.P., could produce around 7,000 metric tonnes of cocoons.  In view of enormous growth of the industry, Sericulture was separated from Handlooms & Textiles and a separate department of Sericulture was formed in the year 1981.

The department's strategy is to promote sericulture as a poverty alleviation programme through integrated action by various departments. After separation, the Department of Rural Development was roped in, to fund development of infrastructure needed to sustain this industry in the State through the Drought Prone Areas Programme and the Integrated Rural Development Programme. In addition to infrastructure support, subsidy for coverage of small and marginal farmers and weaker sections was also made available from these programmes to promote credit flow to this sector.  In view of the near instantaneous and visible impact of these programmes, from the year 1983-84 the Departments of Social Welfare and Tribal Welfare also stepped in, treating sericulture as a major scheme for the economic uplift of SCs and STs. Subsequently, other Departments viz., Panchayat Raj, Revenue, Agriculture and Forest, have also played the supporting role. In addition to the above, the External Aided Projects, such as World Bank aided National Sericulture Project and Swiss Development Mission have also contributed greatly for the development of Sericulture industry in the State. The persons involved in this industry are mostly small and marginal farmers and economically weaker sections of society.

A.P. Silkworm Seed & Cocoon (Control) Rules, 1983 were framed and under these rules, 8 Govt. Cocoon Markets were established, besides notifying some Reeling Units as regulated markets. In the year 1993-94 and 1994-95, the silk imports have doubled and reached about 5,400 tones per annum with the introduction of "Exports and Imports (EXIM)" and "Liberalised Import Policy" of the Government of India.  The Indian silk industry of late suffered a major set back and the farmers had started uprooting the mulberry.  However, the imports were regularised with the intervention of State Governments and the industry was protected from extinction.  Now only 2-A and above graded silk is being imported.  This sort of protection cannot be expected from Government all through and hence conscious efforts being made to meet any eventuality.

Depending upon the need, the department is making efforts to meet the requirements and extending necessary technical and financial support to the beneficiaries.

Special Notes for reference to posted by Naik


Sericulture in A.P. is a sustainable farm-based economic enterprise positively favouring the rural poor and the unemployed youth yielding regular returns in 4 to 5 splits from one acre of mulberry by providing employment to 5 persons throughout the year. An important feature of Sericulture Industry is involvement of around 60% women. Realising the importance of the activity, the Government have earmarked an outlay of Rs.3,590.97 lakhs for Sericulture sector under Annual Plan 2006-07 for implementation of various schemes.

Andhra Pradesh occupies 2nd position in the country in production of silk. The mulberry acreage is mainly concentrated in the drought prone areas of Rayalaseema region, particularly in Anantapur and Chittoor Districts. Andhra Pradesh has the privilege of producing other types of silk called Tasar, Eri besides mulberry being predominantly practiced in Tribal areas of the State. As vast tracts of forest based tasar food plantations are available in the State judicious exploitation for rearing tasar silkworms can offer supplementary gainful employment for tribals.

New Initiatives

·         To help the farmers in selling their cocoons at competitive prices, Multiend reeling units were revived under private sector. In addition to this 15 Govt. Silk Reeling units were revived in the State for effective utilization of the services of the workers. 

·         To encourage post cocoon activity and to bridge the gap between the on farm and non-farm sectors to maximum extent, it is proposed to establish one Chinese automatic reeling unit under private sector.

·         To provide marketing facility to the ERI farmers, it is proposed to establish one ERI processing cum spinning unit under private sector.

·         Expansion of Tasar and Ericulture to other potential districts.

·         Utilisation of improved Silkworm seeds from Thailand for production of 3A grade raw silk in coastal areas.

·         Large scale mulberry plantations, Kissan nurseries, Chawaie Rearing Centres (CRCs) and Reeling Units integration in Coastal areas.

·         SMS (Short Message Service) for farmers for knowing daily market rates of cocoons.

·         Launching of Departmental website ( for creation of awareness amongst all.

The Department is making all-out effort to promote the following new technologies at the field level for increasing the productivity.

Ø  Replacement of existing mulberry gardens with high yielding varieties

Ø  Maintenance of exclusive chawkie gardens

Ø  Promotion of controlled irrigation system like "DRIP"

Ø  Mass Disinfection Programme

Ø  Separate pucca-rearing houses with shoot rearing

Ø  Human Resource Development

Ø  Research & Development

Ø  Promotion of Multi-end silk reeling, twisting, processing units and looms.

Mulberry Sector:

Drip Irrigation:

The water availability has become a problem and most of the mulberry gardens have dried up in the state due to severe drought. Focus is therefore on conservation of available water resources. Realizing the problem, the department is implementing the Drip irrigation scheme under Catalytic Development Programme with a unit cost of Rs.19,200/- per acre of which  90% subsidy is provided to SC/ST/women beneficiaries and 70% subsidy for others. The maximum subsidy eligible is Rs.24,000/- for 1.4 acres. An extent of 7242 acres of mulberry has been covered with drip irrigation upto the end of October 2006 under Catalytic Development Programme.

Implementation of Bivoltine Program:

To achieve the international grade of raw silk and to have defined quality and productivity, bivoltine is introduced commercially in a big way for the first time in the State in the year 2001-02.  The production of Bivoltine cocoons increased from 802 MTs during the year 2001-02 to 1,239 MTs in the year 2005-06 with the implementation of Catalytic Developmental programmes, with Central Silk Board's assistance. During the current year the department proposed to achieve 2,460 MTs. At present the bivoltine programme is extended to all the districts in the State in selected Nucleus villages under Bivoltine Hybrid Programme. The high yielding bivoltine silkworm races are being popularized to promote bivoltine sericulture. The average yield per 100 disease free layings (dfls) has increased from 48 at the beginning of the programme to 65 kgs. 

Assistance to farmers for construction of rearing sheds under Catalytic Development Programme (CDP)

To ensure hygienic conditions and to prevent contamination during silkworm rearing, construction of a separate silk worm-rearing house is very essential.  Therefore a scheme for construction of rearing shed has been sanctioned under CDP with a unit cost of Rs.1,00,000/- to each of the Bivoltine farmer funded at 25:25:50 by Central Silk Board, State Government & Beneficiary respectively.  So far 10,920 rearing sheds were constructed under this scheme.

Non-Mulberry Sector:


3000 tribal families are engaged in rearing of Tasar silk worms on the food plants available in the forest areas of Adilabad, Karimnagar, Warangal and Khammam districts and produced a quantity of 113.535 lakh numbers of tasar cocoons worth Rs.56.767 lakhs.  During the current year a quantity of 3.00 crores of tasar cocoons are expected to be produced by tribal farmers. 


Andhra Pradesh is having larger extent of Castor and Tapioca plantations particularly in the districts of Mahaboobnagar, Nalgonda, Rangareddy and East Godavari. The farmers can utilise 40% of the castor / Tapioca leaf for rearing of eri worms with out any deterioration in the yield of castor seed and Tapioca tuber, to get additional income of Rs. 2000 to 4000. Andhra Pradesh has launched a pilot project of Ericulture in the State with a cost of Rs.3.71 crores over a period of 5 years in coordination with the Central Silk Board. A quantity of 33.5 MTs of Eri cocoons worth Rs. 17.50 lakhs were produced by 872 castor and tapioca farmers during the year 2005-06.

Research and Development:

Andhra Pradesh State Sericulture Research and Development Institute, Hindupur was established during the year 1995 to evolve new races, capable of producing international grade silk. The Institute so far evolved three races viz., SWARNANDHRA, HEMAVATHI and KALPATHARUVU and they are giving extremely better results over the conventional races.  Productive Multi X Bivoltine, Bivoltine hybrids with disease resistance races are under field trials.  In addition, certain eco-friendly user disinfectants such as Seri-Gold, Seri- Shubra, Seri-Shuddi, Seri-Rich etc., are released, there by the production of cocoons increased from 5 Kgs. to 10 Kgs.

Statistical data:

The new area brought under mulberry plantation has increased from 7,116 acres in the year 2003-04 to 9,386 acres during 2004-05. During the current year, the targeted extent is 10,000 acres.  The reeling cocoon production has increased from 45,454 MTs in 2004-05 to 46,785 MTs during 2005-06. During the current year a quantity of 48,000 Mts is expected, thanks to good rainfall.

The item-wise achievements made under sericulture sector during 2001-02 to 2006-07 (Up to September 2006) are shown in Annexure 5.25.

Highlights of achievements:

1.Andhra Pradesh stands No: 1 in productivity in the Country in respect of mulberry cocoon production.

2.Record production of 33.50 MTs of Eri cocoons as against 13.35 MTs produced during 2004-05.

3.Created short messaging service to farmers to know the market rates at different markets.



5.8    A comprehensive market legislation came into force in 1966 to the entire state called the Andhra Pradesh (Agricultural Produce and Livestock) Markets Act 1966, after integration of the Hyderabad Agricultural Produce and Livestock Markets Act, 1930 and the Madras Commercial Crops Act, 1933. The salient features of the Act are:

        To regulate sale and purchase of Agri-cultural produce

        To declare notified areas and notified markets for regulation

        To constitute Market Committees for each notified area for regulation

        To license all the persons intending to trade    in    the    notified    agricultural produce

        To levy and collect the market fee

        To construct and develop market yards for regulation

        To      prohibit      collection      of     all un-authorized charges in the sale and purchase of agricultural produce

        To   arrange   sale   and   purchase   of agricultural produce in the market by
open auction or tender system

       To collect and   disseminate   market information for the use of farmers and traders.

There are 310 Market Committees
and 889 notified markets in the State. Each Market Committee
consists of 18 members viz., 11
members from growers, 3 from
traders and the other four from the representatives of local bodies and Government Departments. The committee is headed by a Chairman from grower members. The Government nominates all the members. Every Market Committee has a Secretary who is the executive authority of the
Market C
ommittee. All staff of the Market Committee is appointed by the Market Committee / Director of Marketing / Government as per AP (AP & LS) Markets Rules, 1969. The Market Committee is responsible for the effective implementation of the Markets Act and the AP (Agricultural and Livestock) Markets Rules, 1969 and the Bye-laws of the Market Committee. Every Market Committee is a corporate body having perpetual00succession.
The Director of Marketing is the
authority at State level to supervise
and control all the Market
Committees for effective implementation of the Act, Rules and the Bye-laws and report to the Government about the working of the Market Committees. The Market Committees levy and collect market fee at the rate of one percent advolerum on the sale and purchase of notified agricultural produce payable by the purchasers of the produce. The market fee is the   only   income   for the Market Committee, which is self-generating and is called Market Committee fund deposited in a scheduled bank operated through treasury. The market fee is utilized mainly for the development of markets and creation of facilities to the users of the markets i.e., growers and traders and other functionaries and for other allied purposes specified by Government from time to time. The income of all the Market Committees during 2005-06 was Rs.202.84 crores.

Market Committees shall remit 10% of the annual income to a separate fund called Central Market Fund (CMF). This fund is under the control and operation of the Commissioner & Director of Marketing. The Central Market Fund is expended mainly to provide loans to Market Committees besides grant-in-aid to the financially weak Market Committees. But the government is empowered to expend the CMF by special or general order for any purpose for the development of agricultural marketing and its allied activities.

Keeping in view of the objectives of the Department, the Department has envisaged a Farmers' Charter for implementation. The Charter provides for:

1.       Right of information regarding prices

2.       Ensuring fair value for the produce

3.       Ensuring accurate weighing

4.       Freedom   from   unscrupulous   traders and trade practices

5.       Ensuring payment on the same day

6.       Providing  human   and   animal   health care

7.       Providing quality inputs.

The Department has installed computers at 301 Market Yards for regular inflow of information on prices. It has also installed Audio Video Display systems (AVDS) at 50 market yards so far. Prices of all major commodities are displayed through these video systems for the benefit of the   farmers   everyday. The Department has also established Interactive Voice Response System (IVRS) through which anyone from anywhere can dial the dedicated telephone number and find out the prevailing prices of all major agricultural commodities at all major market yards. The prices are updated everyday. (IVR Nos. 23260100)

Administrative measures have been taken for tracking the farmers at major market yards under 'help the farmer' programme. Under this, the market yards have been divided into segments. Each segment has been entrusted to a responsible Officer. This Officer shall, during the arrivals, take notice of every farmer who comes with his produce into his segment. He shall help the farmer get a fair price for accurate weighment and also make sure of prompt payment. This system has paid rich dividends in winning the goodwill of the farmer.

Electronic Weighing machines are being introduced in 70 major market yards for ensuring accurate weighment of the farmers' produce.

Rythu Bandhu Pathakam

Under the Rythu Bandhu Pathakam, the Department has spent more than Rs.38.00 crores for providing pledge loan to the farmers and to help them to avoid distress sale of their produce.  12330 farmers have been benefited under this scheme during 2005-06.

The Department has spent Rs. 28.55 crores during 2005-06 for taking up different infrastructure developmental works in the market yards.

Rythu Bazars

The Department has a network of 95 Rythu Bazars in the State. Over 2,20,000 quintals of vegetables, on an average, are being sold every week through these Rythu Bazars by about 20630 farmers directly to the consumers. 13 Mobile Rythu Bazars are operating in Hyderabad and Vijayawada for selling graded vegetables. This has proved to be a great success.

The Department has earmarked 5% of Market Committee Income for farmer Awareness programmes. The Department is also conducting free medical camps for farmers and their cattle every Quarter with the funds of Agricultural Market Committees.

In addition to the above the department is undertaken market yards modernization and development with the Government of India assistance.

Ø  Modernization of 37 markets in the State with a total outlay of Rs. 164.54 crores with 25% Government of India subsidy scheme.

Ø  Development of 25 new cotton market yards under Technology Mission on Cotton (TMC) at a cost of Rs. 54.46 crores with 60% Government of India share and 40% Agricultural Market Committee share.

Ø  Development of 12 Jute markets under Jute Technology Mission (JTM) with a cost of Rs. 18.90 crores with 60% Government of India grant and 40% Agricultural Market Committee grant.

Ø  Development of 36 Rural markets under Rural Interior Development Fund (RIDF) (NABARD) with a cost of Rs. 18.91 crores with Government of India grant.

Ø  Development of 3 terminal markets at Hyderabad, Tirupathi and Vijayawada under Government of India Scheme.

Ø  Development of 20 Fruits and Vegetables markets and 20 Rythu Bazars with financial assistance from National Horticulture Mission (NHM), Govt. of India.

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