The two major religions that came into prominence after the vedic period:
i) Buddhism - Initiated by a Kshatriya prince of the Shakya clan, Siddhartha, (who later came to
be known as Buddha) around 6th century BC. Siddhartha was born in 567 BC at Lumbini in
Kapilavastu (present day Nepal). He was the son of king Shuddhodhana. He went in search of
truth and attained enlightenment under a pipal tree at Bodh Gaya, and delivered his first sermons
at Sarnath in U.P. He died at Kushinagar in U.P.
The main Buddhist teachings of the eight–fold path of right faith, thought, action, livelihood, efforts,
speech, remembrance and concentration, belief in nirvana (freedom from the cycle of birth and death),
ahimsa and law of karma were recorded in Triptikas, the religious book of Buddhists.
ii) Jainism - Initiated by Rishabha (a Kshatriya prince), Jainism attained peak under Vardhamana
Mahavira (the 24th Tirthankara). Mahavira was born at Kundagrama in 540 BC at Bihar, and
attained perfect knowledge 'Kaivalya' after he became an ascetic at the age of 30. He became a
'Jina' (one who has conquered happiness and misery) and died at Pavapuri (present day Bihar).The major teachings of Jainism were based on the Tri-ratna concept and the Tri-ratna concept
was based on
a) Right knowledge,
b) Right faith and
c) Right conduct.