June 23, 2010

Mughal Dynasty (AD 1526-1857) - Medieval India for APPSC

1 Babar - He is credited with the foundation of the Mughal empire by defeating Ibrahim Lodhi
in the First Battle of Panipat on April 20, 1526. His tomb is built at Kabul, and his autobiography
Baburnama is written in Turkish.

2 Humayun - He was the next emperor of the Mughal empire after Babur. His tomb is in Delhi,
his biography Humayunama was written by Guladan Begum.

3 Akbar - He was the most successful Mughal emperor. An excellent leader, who separated
religion and politics, started a new religion called Din-e-Ilahi. He established Fatehpur Sikri and
Buland Darwaja near Agra. He abolished the Jazia Tax. Bairam Khan, Akbar's General, fought the
Second Battle of Panipat in 1556 & defeated Hemu. Two important books Akbarnama and
Ain-e-Akbari were written during Akbar's tenure by Abul Fazal. His tomb is built at Sikandara
near Agra.

4 Jehangir - The son of Akbar, who ascended the throne after Akbar's death, known for his
administration and strict sense of justice. He was the husband of Noor Jahan Begum and had
built Shalimar and Nishant Bagh. His autobiography is Tuzk-e-Jahangiri and his tomb is
built at Lahore.

 5 Shahjahan - Famous ruler and son of Jehangir, who built the Taj Mahal at Agra, in the
memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal. Jama Masjid and Red Fort are the other two famous
monuments that were built by him. He had transferred his capital from Agra to Delhi.

 6 Aurangzeb - A very cruel ruler and son of Shahjahan, who demolished several religious
structures of Hindus, and ruled for about 50 years. He constructed the 'Moti Masjid' in the Red
Fort at Delhi and 'Bibi ka Makbara' at Aurangabad.

7 Sher Shah Suri (1540-1555) - He was a brilliant administrator who issued the Rupiah and
Paisa coins and built the famous Grand Trunk Road from Peshawar to Calcutta. He constructed
the Old Fort of Delhi.

The Mughal empire started declining with the attack of Nadir Shah who took with him the famous
Kohinoor Diamond to Afghanistan. Then came the Marathas who became powerful under the
leadership of Shivaji.


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