October 15, 2013

Important Battles in Indian History -for UPSC, APPSC Material, IBPS & Bank PO General Awareness Material

War / Battle
326 B.C.
Battle of Hydaspas
Battle of Hyadaspes fought between Alaxender and Porus in 326 B.C, in which Alaxender defeated the Porus.
261 B.C.
Kalinga War
When Ashoka, the son of the Mauryan emperor Bindusara and the grandson of Chandragupta Maurya, ascended the throne of Magadha in 273 B.C. treading in the footsteps of his forefathers he set out to expand his empire. In the 12th year of his reign, he sent a message to Kalinga asking its submission, but the Kalingaraj refused to submit to the Mauryan empire.
As a result Ashoka lead a huge army against Kalinga. This took place in 261 B.C., the freedom loving people of Kalinga offered a stiff resistance to the Mauryan army. The whole of Kalinga turned into a battle arena. History offers us but few examples of such fiercely fought wars as this. The Kalingaraj himself commanded his army in the battle field. However, the limited forces of Kalinga were no match for the overwhelming Magadha army. Contrary to Ashoka's expectations, the people of Kalinga fought with such great valor that on number of occasions they came very close to a victory. The soldiers of Kalinga perished in the battlefield fighting till their last breath for their independence. The victory ultimately rested with Ashoka.
The war took a tremendous toll of life and property. The 13th rock edict of Ashoka throws light on this war. Atleast 0.1 million Kalingans were killed while another 0.15 million were taken prisoners. And almost equal number of Magadha soldiers were also killed. There was not a single man left in Kalinga to live a life of slavery.
This is the singular instance of a war in history which brought about a complete change of heart in a stern ruler like Ashoka. The scene of the war presented a horrible sight, the whole terrain was covered with the corpses of soldiers, wounded soldiers groaned in severe pain, vultures hovered over their dead bodies, orphaned children mourning the loss of their nears and dears, widows looked blank and despaired.
This sight overwhelmed Ashoka. He realized that his victory at such a cost is not worthwhile. The whole war resulted in Ashoka's deviation towards Buddhism and after two and a half years he became an ardent follower of Buddhism under Acharya Upgupta
712 A.D.
Invasion of Sind
According to Muslim historical accounts such as the Chach Nama, the nature of the expeditions was punitive, and in response to raids carried out by pirates on Arab shipping, operating around Debal. The allegation was made that the King of Sindh, Raja Dahir was the patron of these pirates. The third expedition was led by a 20-year-old arabian chieftain named Muhammad bin Qasim. The expedition went as far North as Multan, then called the "City of Gold," that contained the extremely large Hindu temple of Sun god.
Bin Qasim invaded the sub-continent at the orders of Al-Hajjaj bin Yousef, the governor of Iraq. Qasim's armies defeated Raja Dahir at what is now Hyderabad in Sindh in 712. He then proceeded to subdue the lands from Karachi to Multan with an initial force of only six thousand arabian tribesmen; thereby establishing the dominion of the Umayyad Caliphate from Lisbon in Portugal to the Indus Valley. Qasim's stay was brief as he was soon recalled to Iraq, and the Caliphates rule in South Asia shrank to Sindh and Southern Punjab in the form of Arab states, the principal of whom were Al Mansura and Multan.
1191 A.D.
First Battle of Tarain
In 1191, Muhammad Ghori attacked Sirhind or Bathinda on northwestern frontier of Chauhan kingdom. Prithviraj's along with his army, led by vassal Govinda-Raj, rushed to the defense of the frontier, and the two armies fought a battle at Tarain. This is how the First war of Tairan began.
Two wings of Turkic army was defeated and fled away while Muhammad Ghori could not recover from the blow and fainted from the shock. The army surrendered and Muhammad was made prisoner. Muhammad of Ghor begged for mercy and Prithviraj pardoned him.
1192 A.D.
Second Battle of Tarain
Ghori defeats Prithviraj Chauhan; In 1192, Ghori after returning to his capital Ghazni challenged Prithviraj at the Second Battle of Tarain. Both Muhmmad and Prithviraj increased their army’s strength. Muhmmad divided his huge troop into 5 parts and Prithviraj increased army with the help of 150 Rajput kingdoms. Muhammad Ghori asked Prithviraj Chauhan to either change his religion to Muslim or be prepared to be defeated by him. Prithviraj Chauhan cease-fired.
Muhammad Ghori decieved Prithviraj with a letter of acceptance of the treaty. The Rajput armySecond BAttle of Terrain was in a relaxed mood. Suddenly Ghori`s army attacked Prithviraj`s army in the wee hours. At the end of the day Muhammad Ghori was victorious.
About hundred thousand Rajput soldiers died in the battle. The second battle of Tarain opened the way for conquerors of India. Muhammad and his successors established an Islamic Empire in India as the Sultanate of Delhi.
1194 A.D.
Battle of Chandiwar
The battle was fought at Chandwar (modern Firozabad), on the Jumna River close to Agra. In most accounts the Hindus were close to victory when an arrow hit Jaichand in the eye, killing him. He fell off his elephant, was trampled, and after the battle could only be identified by the gold caps on his teeth. With their leader gone the Hindu army broke and fled, taking heavy casualties during the pursuit. An alternative tradition has Jaichand escape from the battlefield and found a new dynasty in the Kurnaon Hills.
His victory at Chandwar gave Muhammad control of much of northern India, although it took Aibak several years to consolidate that rule, and it was briefly threatened in 1205 after Muhammad suffered a serious defeat at Andkhui.
1526 A.D.
First Battle of Panipat
Babar defeats Ibrahim Lodhi
1527 A.D.
Battle of Khanua
Babar defeats Rana Sanga
1529 A.D.
Battle of Ghaghara
Babar defeats the Afghans
1539 A.D.
Battle of Chausa
Sher Shah Suri defeats Humayun
1540 A.D.
Battle of Kannauj (or Bilgram)
Sher Shah Suri defeats Humayun
1556 A.D.
Second Battle of Panipat
Bairam Khan (representing Akbar) defeats Hemu
1565 A.D.
Battle of Talikota (or Banihatti)
Vijaynagar empire (represented by Sadasiva) loses against an alliance formed by Ahmednagar, Bijapur, Golkonda and Bidar
1576 A.D.
Battle of Haldighati
Akbar defeats Maharana Pratap
1615 A.D.
Mewar submitted to the Mughals
Peace treaty signed between Jahangiri and Rana Amar Singh of Mewar.
1649 A.D.
Mughal-Safavid War
Mughals lose Kandahar to Persia
1658 A.D.
Battle of Dharmatt and Samugarh
Aurangzeb defeats Dara Shikoh
1665 A.D.
Seige of Purandar
Raja Jai Singh defeats Shivaji. Treaty of Purandar signed
1708 A.D.
Battle of Khed
Shahu defeats Tara Bai.
1737 A.D.
Battle of Bhopal
Baji Rao defeats Mohammed Shah.
1739 A.D.
Battle of Karnal
Nadir Shah defeats Mohammed Shah.
1757 A.D.
Battle of Plassey
Robert Cive defeats Siraj-ud-daula, the Nawab of Bengal
1760 A.D.
Battle of Wandiwash
English defeat the French
1761 A.D.
Third Battle of Panipat
Ahmed Shah Abdali defeats Marathas
1764 A.D.
Battle of Buxar
Hector Munro defeats combined armies of Nawab Mir Qasim of Bengal, Nawab Shuja-ud-daula of Awadh and Mughal emperor Shah Alam
1767-69 A.D.
First Anglo Mysore War
Hyder Ali defeats English forces
1766-69 A.D.
First Anglo Maratha War
British defeated
1770 A.D.
Battle of Udgir
Marathas defeat the Nizam
1780-84 A.D.
Second Anglo Mysore War
Hyder Ali dies. Treaty of Mangalore is signed
1789-92 A.D.
Third Anglo Mysore War
Tipu Sultan defeated. Treaty of Serirangapatnam is signed.
1799 A.D.
Fourth Anglo Mysore War
Tipu Sultan is defeated and killed
1803-06 A.D.
Second Anglo Maratha War
Marathas lose to the British
1817-19 A.D.
Third Anglo Maratha War
Marathas lose to the British again
1824-26 A.D.
First Anglo Burmese War
British win over Burmese.
1839-42 A.D.
First Anglo Afghan War
British defeat Afghan ruler Dost Mohammad
1845-46 A.D.
First Anglo Sikh War
Sikhs lose to the British
1848-49 A.D.
Second Anglo Sikh War
Punjab annexed by the British
1852 A.D.
Second Anglo Burmese War
British win the war
1865 A.D.
Third Angio Burmese War
British win and Burma is annexed
1868-80 A.D.
Second Anglo Afghan War
Treaty of Gandamak is signed
1919-21 A.D.
Third Anglo Afghan War
Ended in an Artimice. Durand line established.


No comments: