May 11, 2013

Third Generation Computers (1964-1975)

The Third generation computers used the integrated circuits (IC). Jack Kilby developed the concept of integrated circuit in 1958. It was an important invention in the computer field. The first IC was invented and used in 1961. The size of an IC is about ¼ square inch. A single IC chip may contain thousands of transistors.
The computer became smaller in size, faster, more reliable and less expensive. The examples of third generation computers are IBM 370, IBM System/360, UNIVAC 1108 and UNIVAC AC 9000 etc.
·         Advantages
  • Smaller in size as compared to previous generations.
  • More reliable.
  • Used less energy
  • Produced less heat as compared to the previous two generations of computers.
  • Better speed and could calculate data in nanoseconds.
  • Used fan for heat discharge to prevent damage.
  • Maintenance cost was low because hardware failure is reare.
  • Totally general purpose
  • Could be used for high-level languages.
  • Good storage
  • Versatile to an extent
  • Less expensive
  • Better accuracy
  • Commercial production increased.
  • Used mouse and keyboard for input.
·         Disadvantages
  • Air conditioning was required.
  • Highly sophisticated technology required for the manufacturing of IC chips.


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