October 17, 2013

Sultanate Period (1206- 1526 A.D) - General Awareness Notes

1. Mohammad Bin Qasim invaded India in 712 A.D and conquered Sindh, it was the first Muslim invasion.
2. First Turk Invasion by Mahmud of Ghaznavi (998-1030 A.D), Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni led about 17 expeditions in India to enrich himself bt taking away the wealth from India. In 1025 A.D, he attacked and raided the most celebrated hindu temple of Somnath. The temple was destroyed in 1026 A.D.
3. Second Turk invasion- Mohammad Ghori’s invasion (1175- 1206 A.D), Mohammad Ghori invaded India and laid the foundation of the Muslims dominion in India. He may be considered as the “Founder of Muslim rule” in India.

The Delhi Sultanate-: 1206 A.D- 1526 A.D
Mohammad Ghori’s consequent became the nucleus of a new political entity in India- The Delhi Sultanate.
The period is divided into 5 distinct periods:-
a. The Slave dynasty- 1206-90 A.D
b. The Khilji dynasty- 1290-1320 A.D
c. The Tughlaq dynasty- 1320- 1414 A.D
d. The Sayyid dynasty- 1414-51 A.D
e. The Lodhi dynasty- 1451-1526 A.D

The Slave dynasty:- 1206-90 A.D
1. Qutubuddin Aibak, A Turkish slave by origin, he was purchased by Mohammad Ghori, later made him Governor. After his death, Aibak became the Master of the Hindustan and founded the Slave dynasty in 1206 A.D
2. For his generosity, he was given the title of “Lakh Bakhsh”.
3. He constructed two mosque Quwat-ul-islam at Delhi and Adhai din ka jhopra at Ajmer. He also began the construction of Qutub Minar in the honour of the famous Sufi saint Khwaja Qutubuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki.
4. He died in 1210 while playing Chaugan.
5. Shamsuddin Illtutmish (1211-36 A.D), he was a slave of the Qutubuddin Aibak and occupied the throne of Delhi in 1211 A.D.
6. He was very capable ruler and is regarded as the real founder of the Delhi Sultanate.
7. He made the Delhi capital in place of Lahore.
8. He saved the Delhi from the wrath of the Chengiz Khan, the Mongol leader.
9. He introduced the silver coin (Tanka) and the copper coin (Jital).
10. He introduced the Iqta system.
11. He setup the Chalisa system.
12. He completed the construction of the Qutub Minar which was started by the Aibak.
13. He died in 1236 A.D, After the Illtutmish, Ranakuddin his son was crowned by her mother. He was deposed by Razia, daughter of Illtutmish.
14. She was the first lady and Lady Muslim ruler in India.
15. She married Altunia, the governor of the Bhatinda, In 1240 A.D Razia became the victim of the conspiracy and she was assassinated near kaithal (Haryana).
16. After the death of the Razia many ruler came but they did not made their domination like Bahram Shah, Masud Shah, and Nasiruddin Mohammad.
17. Nasiruddin Mohammad was the son of the Illtutmish and was known as the Darvesi King as he was very pious and noble. He died in 1266 A.D.
18. Ghiyasuddin Balban (1266-87 A.D) He broke the power of the Chalisa and restored the prestige of the crown.
19. To keep himself well informed, he appointed spies.
20. He established the Military department “Diwan-i-arz”
21. He took up the title of “Zil-i-llahi” (Shadow of the god”)
22. He introduced the Sijda (Prostration before the monarch) and Paibos (Kissing the feet of the monarch).
23. Balban died while fighting the Mongolians in 1285 A.D.
24. Kaiqubad (1287-90 A.D), grandson of the Balban, last ruler of the Slave dynasty.

The Khilji dynasty:- 1290 A.D-1320 A.D
1. Jalauddin Khilji founded the Khilji dynasty
2. Alauddin Khilji, the nephew and the son-in-law of the Jalaluddin Khilji killed him and succeeded the throne in 1296 A.D.
3. He was the first Turkish Sultan of the Delhi who separated the religion from politics. He proclaimed “Kingship knows no kinship”.
4. He was very great ruler of the Khilji dynasty, he annexed Gujarat (1298), Ranthambore (1301), Mewar (1303) and Malwa (1305).
5. In Deccan, Alaudin army led by Malik Kafur defeated the Ram Chandra (Yadav ruler of Devgiri), Pratap Rudradeva (Kaktiya Ruler of the Warangal) etc.
6. He introduced the system of the Dagh (The branding of the horse) and Chehra (Descriptive role of the Soldiers).
7. He constructed the Alai Darwaza the entrance gate of the Qutub Minar.
8. He was the great patron of the art and learning. Amir Khusrau, the port-musician was his favourite court poet.
9. In 1316 A.D after the death of the Alauddin, Malik Kafur seized the throne.
10. Khusrau Khan was the last ruler of the Khilji dynasty.

The Tughlaq dynasty:- 1320- 1414 A.D
1. Khusrau Khan, the last ruler of the Khilji dynasty was killed by Ghazi Malik.
2. Ghazi Malik ascended the throne assuming the title of the Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq.
3. He died in accident his son Jauna (Ulugh Khan) succeeded him under the title of the Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq.
4. He transferred his capital from Delhi to Devgiri in 1327 A.D named Devgiri as Daultabad.
5. He died in Thatta while campaigning in Sindh against Taghi, aTurkish Slave.
6. After the death of the Muhammad Tughlaq, Firoz Shah Tughlaq ascended the throne.
7. During the time of the Firoz Shah. Jizya became the separate tax.
8. He refused to exempt the Brahamanas from payment of Jizya.
9. He introduced the new taxation system according to the Quran, Four kind of the taxes, Kharaj was the land tax 1/10th of the produce of the land, Zakat, 2% tax on property, Jizya was leived on the Non-muslims and Khams was 1/5th of the booty captured during the war.
10. Department of the Diwan-i-khairat was setup to make for marriage of the poor girls.
11. He died in 1388 A.D.
12. Timur’s Invasion in 1398-99 A.D Timur a Turk invaded India in 1398 A.D during the reign of the Muhammad Shah Tughlaq, last ruler of the Tughlaq Dynasty.

The Sayyid dynasty- 1414- 1450 A.D
1. Khizr Khan Timur’s nominee captured Delhi and proclaimed himself the new Sultan.
2. Mubarak Shah succeeded Khizr Khan.
3. Muhammah Shah Succeeded the Mubarak Shah, and Alam Shah was the last sayyid king.

The Lodhi dynasty- 1451-1526 A.D
1. Bahlol Lodhi was of the Afghan Sardar. He founded the Lodhi dynasty.
2. Sikandar Lodhi was the son of the of the Bahlol Lodhi who conquered Bihar and Western Bengal.
3. He shifted his capital from Delhi to Agra, a city founded by him.
4. Ibrahim Lodhi was the last king of the Lodhi dynasty, He was defeated by Babur in 1st battle of the Panipat. Babur established the Mughal Empire.


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