April 1, 2014

The advent of the Europeans in India

1. The Cape route was discovered from Europe to India by Vasco da Gama. He reached the port of Calicut on May 17, 1498 and was received by the Hindu Ruler of Calicut Zamorin.
2. Cochin was the early capital of the Portuguese in India. Later Goa replaced it.
3. Francisco de Almeda was the first Governor of Portuguese from 1505 A.D to 1509, he introduced the “Policy of blue water”.
4. Alfonso de Albuquerque was the second Governor of Portuguese from 1509-1515 introduced the “Policy of Imperialism”. He captured Goa from the ruler of Bijapur in 1510.
5. Nino da Cunha transferred his capital from Cochin to Goa.
6. Martin Alfonso de Souza, the famous Jesuit Saint Fransisco Xavier arrived in India with him.
7. In 1661 the king of the Portugal gave Bombay to Charles-II of the England as dowry when he married his sister to him.


1. After the Portuguese Dutch set up their Factories at Masulipattanam in 1605, Pulicat in 1610, Surat in 1616 etc.
2. Dutch conceded to English after their defeat in the Battle of Bedera in 1759.

1. Before the English East India Co. established trade in India, John Mildenhall, a merchant adventurer was the first English man who arrived in India in 1599 by the over land route for the purpose of trade with Indian Merchants.
2. East India Co. was formed in 1600.
3. Captain Hawkins arrived at Jahangir’s Court in 1609 to seek permission to open a factory at Surat. A farman was issued by the Jahangir permitting the English to build the factory at Surat in 1613.
4. Sir Thomas Roe came to India as Ambassador of James-I to Jahangir’s court in 1615 to obtain permission to trade and erect factories in different parts of the Empire.
5. The English East India Co. acquired Bombay from Charles II on lease. Gerald Aungier was its first Governor from 1669 to 1677.
6. In 1690, Job Charmock established a factory at Sutanati and Zamindari of the three villages Sutanati, Kalikata and Gobinpur was acquired by the British in 1698. These villages later grew into the city of Calcutta. The factory at Sutanati was fortified in 1696 and this new fortified settlement was named Fort William in 1700.

1. The French East India Co. was formed by Colbert under state patronage in 1664.
2. The first French factory was established at Surat by Francois Caron in 1668.
3. First Anglo-French war in 1746-48, The French besieged Madras. At St. Thomas battle the Nawab of Carnatic’s army was defeated by French under Dupleix.
4. Second battle of Anglo-French (1749-54) Dupelix defeated by Robert Clive.
5. Third battle of Anglo-French (1758-63) French Count de Lally captured St. David fort. French were defeated at Wandiwash in 1760. 


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