June 25, 2014

The Chandellas : Kingdoms of South India

(Indian History for UPSC Civil services Preparation, SSC , Bank Po Clerical & APPSC Exams)
  • The Chandellas who were also known as Chandratreyas, ruled the country of Bundelkhand.
  • The dynasty had been founded by Nannuka in the early years of the 9th century and his capital was Kharjuravahaka, the modern village of Khajuraho in the erstwhile Chhatarpur state, Madhya Pradesh.
  • The first king of note was Harsha who ruled from c. AD. 900 to 925. Like his predecessors, Harsha was a vassal of the Pratiharas. His son and successor ‘Yasovarman, who reigned in the third quarter of the 10th century, conquered Kalinjara and extended his kingdom up to the Yamuna on the north.
  • He fought successfully against the piuamaras and the Kalachuris and pushed the southern boundary of his state up to the borders of Malawa and Chedi.
  • He came into conflict with the Gurjaras and successfully invaded Gauda and Mithila then under Pala rule. His son Dhanga succeeded him sometime after AD. 951.
  • Dhanga fought many ‘battles and extended the territories of his kingdom. He sent an army to help the Sahi Jayapala of the Punjab, who formed a confederacy of Indian chiefs to fight Amir Sabuktigin of Ghazni, and shared defeat with the Sahis and others.
  • He died at Prayaga shortly after A. D. 1002 at the age of 100 years and was succeeded by Gauda, who in turn was succeeded by Vidyadhara.
  • During the reign of Vidyadhara Mahmud of Ghazni invaded Kalinjara, one in A. D. 1019 and second in AD. 1022. He could not capture the fort and had to retire after establishing friendly relations with the ruler.
  • In AD.1202, Qutubuddin invaded the fort of Kalinjara and the Chandella King Paramard issued for peace after a brief resistance the king’s minister, Ajayadeva, disapproving of his master’s conduct, killed him and resumed resistance to the Muslims but ultimately he had to surrender to them Qutbuddin took possession of Kalinjara and conquered Mahoba.
  • Sometime before A.D. 1205, Trailokyavarman, son of Paramardi, defeated the Muslims at Kakadadaha, south-east of Bedwara, and recovered his kingdom.

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