April 20, 2016

Ebola Virus

Ebola Haemorrhagic Fever - Ebola virus infection is systemic, it attacks every organ and tissue of the human body except the bones and skeletal muscles. It is marked by blood clotting and hemorrhaging. They  release proteins that dampen down the immune system response.
They multiply in collagen. Collagen is the tissue that helps to keep the organs in place. The tissue is basically digested by this virus.
The virus causes small blood clots to form in the bloodstream of the patient which slow downs flow. Blood clots get stuck into blood vessels forming red spots on the patient skin. These grow in size as the disease progress. Further these blood clots does not allow a proper blood supply to many organs such as the liver, brain, lungs, kidneys, intestines, breast tissue, testicles, etc.ebola virus appsc

Mode of Transmission:
The virus is transmitted to people from wild animals and spreads in the human population through human-to-human transmission.
Graphic provides background on the Ebola outbreak in West Africa; 3c x 4 inches; 146 mm x 101 mm;
Diagnosis:  Difficult to distinguish EVD from other infectious diseases such as malaria, typhoid fever and meningitis. Confirmation that symptoms are caused by Ebola virus infection are made using the following investigations:
  1. antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
  2. antigen-capture detection tests
  3. serum neutralization test
  4. reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay
  5. electron microscopy
  6. virus isolation by cell culture.
Treatment and vaccines : Rehydration with oral or intravenous fluids- and treatment of specific symptoms, improves survival. There is as yet no proven treatment available.
Prevention and control:
  1. Reducing the risk of wildlife-to-human transmission from contact with infected fruit bats or monkeys/apes and the consumption of their raw meat.
  2. Reducing the risk of human-to-human transmission from direct or close contact with people with Ebola symptoms, particularly with their bodily fluids.
  3. Reducing the risk of possible sexual transmission..
  4. Outbreak containment measures, including prompt and safe burial of the dead, identifying people who may have been in contact with someone infected with Ebola and monitoring.


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