April 29, 2014

The Chahamanas & Paramaras : South & Central India Kingdoms

(Indian History for UPSC Civil services Preparation, SSC , Bank Po & APPSC Exams)
The Chahamanas
  • There were several branches of the Chahamans, known in the later times as the Chauhan Rajputs and the most important of them ruled in Sakambharidesa also known as Sapadalaksa, the capital of which was Sakambhari, modem Sambhar in Rajasthan.
  • The Chahamana rulers had been feudatories of the Pratiharas till Simharaja declared independence in the middle of the 10th century. His successor, Vigraharaja II, defeated Mularaja I and overran Gujrat Vigraharaja II was succeeded by a large number of kings, one after the other, and. in the first quarter of the 12th century, Ajayaraja was on the throne of Sakambhari. He founded a city which was called after his name Ajayameru, modem Ajmer.
  • Vigraharaja IV also called Visaladeva, extended his kingdom up to the Punjab, where he came into conflict with the Muslims.
  • The next important king Prithviraja III began his reign in A.D.1177. Having settled scores over neighboring states he turned his attention to the affairs in the, Punjab.
  • On receipt of the news that Muhammad Ghuri had forcibly occupied the fort of Tabarhinda he marched to the Punjab and defeated Muhammad Ghuri on the baltle field of Tarain near Thaneshwar (AD.1191).
  • In the following year both the armies again met on the same battlefield, but Prithviraja was defeated, taken prisoner and executed. Harihara brother of Prithviraja, regained Ajmer before A.D. 1194, but had to surrender it to Qutbudin Aibak.

The Paramaras
  • There were several branches of the Paramaras. The main branch of this dynasty ruled in Malawa from the early years of the 9th century, with its capital at Dhara.
  • The Rashtrakuta Govinda III conquered Malwa by defeating the Pratihara Nagabhatta II, and appointed one of his favourites to rule it. He was probably Upendra, the founder of the Paramara, dynasty in Malawa.
  • Munja, also known as Utpala and Vakpatilja II, was a great general and was regarded, as one of the foremost kings of the age.
  • He made extensive victories against his neighbours and set out an expedition against the Deccan but was taken captive by his adversary and executed shortly after AD. 993.
  • Munja’s nephew Bhoja, was the greatest king of the Paramara dynasty and an important political figure in the earlier medieval age.
  • In A. D. 1008, he sent an army to help the Sahi Anandapala of the Punjab against Mahumad of ‘ Ghazni, and in AD. 1043, he joined a confederacy of the Hindu chiefs after conquering some Muslim territories besieged Lahore. Malawa was overran by lltutmish, shortly after A.D.1233.

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