August 9, 2014

Important Diagnostic Instruments in Medicine - for General Awareness

Electro Cardiography (ECG): Detects changes in ‘electrical potentials' generated by contraction of heart muscles, which are recorded by placing two special electrodes over particular point of the body. It helps in diagnosis of heart diseases, including myocardial infarction (or coronary thrombosis), myocardial ischemia, cardiac arrhythmia.

Electro Encephalograph (EEG): Records the electrical activity of the brain on suitable paper, with the help of two special electrodes placed on the scalp. It helps in diagnosis of epilepsy, intracranial tumours (or brain tumours).

Electromyography (EMG): Involves graphic recording of muscle ‘action potentials’, which helps in diagnosis of various neuromuscular or muscular diseases and disorders.

These are computerised instruments that estimate accurate biochemicals present in the body fluids like urea, cholesterols, glucose, proteins, etc.

Sphygmomanometer:  An instrument used to measure the blood pressure.

Shygmometer. An instrument used to measure the pulse rate.

Bronchioscope: An instrument with a lighted tube, which is passed down the trachea (wind pipe) for examination of air tubes of the lungs.

Cystoscope: An instrument used to examine the inside of the urinary bladder.


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