June 19, 2014

Deficiency diseases - for General Knowledge

What are Deficiency diseases?
Diseases that are caused by the lack of some particular nutrient/vitamin in a person's diet are called deficiency diseases.  For example, wheat is rich in carbohydrates, but poor in nutrients like proteins and fats. Too much intake of wheat products results in a deficiency of proteins and fats, which reduces growth.  Lack of proteins also results in stunted growth, skin diseases, swelling of the face and dis-colouration of the hair, and even causes diarrhoea. 
Hyponatremia  - Deficiency of Sodium

Hypokalemia - Deficiency of Potassium

Night-blindness: A child having this disease is unable to see properly in the dark. His eyes become dull and listless and the skin becomes dry. If not treated in time, the child may become blind. This disease is caused due to the deficiency of vitamin A in the diet.

Beri-beri: This is basically a disorder of the nerves. It affects the health of eyes %and skin, growth of the body, formation of muscles and blood. There may also to be stomach and intestinal disturbances. This disease is caused due to the deficiency of vitamin-B. 

Scurvy: People suffering from scurvy have swollen and bleeding gums. They lose weight and become weak. Their teeth start shaking and become loose. This disease is caused due to the deficiency of vitamin-C.

Rickets: In this disease, the bones of the legs become thin, deformed and curved (bow-legged). The bones of the child become weak and soft. This disease is caused due to the deficiency of vitamin D.

Anaemia: In this disease, the level of the haemoglobin becomes low gets tired very easily and feels weak. The skin becomes pale. The lips and nails become dull and colourless. This disease is caused due to the deficiency of iron.

Goitre: In this disease, there is swelling around the neck region of a person. This disease is caused due to the deficiency of iodine.

Lack of calcium in the diet makes the bones weak and brittle, and also causes tooth decay. Milk, eggs and other dairy products contain calcium and give strength to the bones and teeth.

Malnutrition: A child in this condition becomes weak and thin. He shows poor growth compared to other children. He gets tired easily. There may be swelling on the feet and hands. The hair becomes very thin and skin of the child gets dark and starts peeling. Such a child is said to be suffering from malnutrition. Deficiency of proteins and carbohydrates causes this disease.

Overview of Important Deficiency Diseases:
Vitamin/  Mineral
Deficiency  disease/disorder
Vitamin A
Loss of vision
Poor vision, loss of vision in darkness (night), sometimes complete loss of vision
Vitamin  B1
Weak muscles and very little energy to work
Vitamin C
Bleeding gums, wounds take longer time to heal
Vitamin D
Bones become soft and bent
Bone and tooth decay
Weak bones, tooth decay
Glands in the neck appear swollen, mental disability in children
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